COVID19 – Challenges and Opportunities for India !

Corona-virus has brought down wheels of economies to a stand still with almost all countries in lockdown or emergency mode. Some economies took the risk of continuing production, but ultimately resorted to Lockdown. There is no vaccine at the moment. If at all a vaccine is found, it will take months for its commercial production. Economics, Strategists, Governments are struggling with the damage caused by Pandemic. The immediate priority of the Governments is saving lives, lest Pandemic can be more deadlier as have been in past.

The impact of such pandemics is immense in terms of lives we lose. The impact is demotivating if not devastating on the Economies. The challenges to be faced next will be bringing back economies to normal, unemployment, NPAs, Growth. Historically, Mankind has faced several natural disasters, man made disasters since the start of the civilization.

World GDP has become 18 times (on nominal basis) while Population increased by 4.6 times. In simple terms, the need and life style of people has grown by 4 times in last 120 years. Table below depicts the journey of World GDP, and growth of Population. World output has been mounted by 5 times since start of 20th Century. The New world is no more local, it is inter-twinned, inter-woven. The extent of dependency of economies on each other is paramount.

Any slow down or change in improved lifestyle is demotivating to devastating. Stopping a wheel of 90 Trillions and starting it again will need lot of reshuffling, realignment, stimulus, and top of all TIME. Pandemics are not new to the civilization in past one hundred years at least on 2 occasions the world got devastated. While the countries recover psychologically, there will be change in Economic world order. As will be discussed later, the world’s input needs are highly concentrated to one country China. The Pandemic has caused economies to rethink to avoid recurrence of such havoc again.

The confidence of the world is eroding the way CCP, WHO handled the Pandemic. In order to diversify and mitigate the losses, big countries like US, Japan, Italy, UK have already expressed their willingness to shift manufacturing base from China to other countries. China’s exports close to 2.5 Trillion Dollars on yearly basis (2018). The number is close to the overall GDP of India on nominal basis. People look this event as an opportunity for shift of manufacturing base from China to India. Let us evaluate various factors in context of India in the event their is substantial or large chunk of manufacturing base to India. We are evaluating this scenario because next better available option to world is Vietnam and Indonesia lack availability of Manpower (a basic ingredient to manufacturing process).

First let us examine the kind of opportunity we are dealing with. China’s big trading partners are the big economies where labour is costlier. To domesticate their consumption, these economies don;t have kind of cheaper inputs of production. If at all these countries start to manufacture their own needs, the prices of outputs will be much higher. Let us evaluate the Chinese trade into type of goods being exported, imported and country wise transaction.

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The Exports of China of $2.5 Trillions mainly includes Capital goods of $ 1.15 Trillions such as Transportation, Machines and Electronics. Capital goods export is almost 46% of its total exports . Next highest category is Consumer Goods (Textiles, Footwears, Wood, Hides and Skins, Food Products, Vegetables, etc.). The exports to US were 20%, Hongkong 12%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5%, UK 2.3%, Australia 1.9% Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand put together 11%.

China’s Imports of $ 2.13 Trillion in 2018 included imports 10% from South Korea, 9.2% from Japan, 8% from USA, Germany 5.4%, Australia 5.4%, Brazil 3.9%, Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand 8.8% and rest other countries. The major component imported were Electrical and electronic equipment 24%, fuels 16%. Rest of imports largely commodities such as metals, non-metals.

China’s top trading partners’

China’s Export to its top trading partner US included 152 $B of electrical machinery, Machinery 117 $B, furniture and bedding B$, toys and sports equipment 27$B and Plastics were 19$B. China imported Aircraft 18 $B, machinery 14B$, Electrical Machinery 13$B, Medical instruments 10$$B, agricultural products 9.3 $B. US Also exported 59 $B services to China.

China’s export to Japan 2nd largest trading partner were Electrical machinery of 52.4B$, machinery of 31.1 B$ clothing 18 B$, and chemicals worth 12 B$. China imported from Japan 52 B$ of machinery, 32 B$of Electrical machinery, chemicals worth 24B$, transport equipments 14.4B$ during 2018.

Hong Kong is China’s 3rd largest trading partner. It can be termed as China’s trading hub since almost all the goods exported by Hongkong to China are for re-export. China’s Export during 2018 to Hong Kong were Electrical machinery of 160 B$, machinery of 44 B$ medical equipments 10 B$. China imported from Hongkong 198 B$ of machinery, 19 B$ of Electrical machinery, and machinery of 39 B$ during 2018. Hongkong’s Import and Export were almost 44.2% and 46.3% respectively and exclusively with China

We see demonstrated above how big is the trade we are talking about. The total foreign trade of China is approxiately 4.5 Trillion $. Its 150% of India’s GDP alone. Shifting base from China to other countries would mean a retaliatory action by China to shift its import base as well. We saw it is not that simple. Another weighing evaluation for sustainable growth of Output is Cost of Factor of production which includes Labour, Rent and Capital cost. The other qualitative factors are supply chain. Let us evaluate each parameter one by one.

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Cost of wages

China’s average wage is 72000 CNY per year, the minimum wage is around 29800 CNY per year, this translates into 43000 CNY (assuming 30% white collar and 70% blue collar); Average of manpower cost is 495 $/P.M.. In India, minimum wage is around 5340 INR/P.M., wages of low skilled labour is 10900 INR/P.M. and wages of high skilled labour is 43200 INR/P.M. The average manpower cost is approximately 212 $/P.M. Personal Income tax rate in China is 45% and Social security tax rate is 48%. While Individual Personal Tax rate is 15-33%, Provident fund is also 24% on basic. Hence The Gap between Disposable Individual Income of two countries narrows down to 65% due to higher SST and IT.

China’s weighted average manpower cost is costlier by 134% as compare to India. Hence this is advantageous not only in terms of Cost but the availability of Manpower is not an immediate constraint.

Capacity and Capability building will emerge as a challenge going forward !!
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Availability of Power

Cost of Electricity a major component in production. China’s Electricity cost is 0.52 RMB/KWH while the same in India is 5.94 INR/KWH. In Dollar both country’s cost of electricity comes out to be 0.078 USD. Availability of uninterrupted power supply for Industrial production is at present a challenge for India. Although, NDA-II Government under the leadership of PM Shri Narendra Modi has geared up for this future need. The All India installed capacity As on 31.03.2020 is 370 GW, a jump of impressive 50% in NDA’s regime. However, the consumption grew by 36% in same period. Currently in 2019 the total consumption of electricity stands at 277 GW (1196309 GWh). A surplus of 107 GW at the moment. Transmission and Distribution Losses (T&D) were appx 20 % in India very high as against averages of world average of 8%. China’s T&D losses reported 5.91% in 2012. The current consumption of electricity by Industrial segment is 41%. We can cater the additional demand for electricity by cutting down T&D losses and utilizing unutilised capacity. But will that be enough if we need to cater increased demand from the world post Pandemic sentiments. This will need a short term as well as long term planning.

China’s 2018, Industrial power consumption sore to 4.72 Trillion GWh (1.1 Trillion Watts) on ~40% of Manufacturing share in GDP. The proportional use of electricity consumed for export is around 341 MW. This is around the total output of India’s all production capacity. For Each increase in Production by 100 $ Billion 14 MW Power needed.

If we can bring down India’s T&D losses to world average of 6%, the balance 14% equivalent to 50 GW would only be sufficient to increase production by $ 300-350 Billion.

Availability of Power is ceiling on aspiration of availing opportunity.
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Logistics and infrastructure of India and China

Next crucial parameter to compare is Supply Chain Management (SCM) this includes movement of goods (Raw material, Finished goods) from and to ports. The big countries are very particular about quality and turn around time (TAT). We will need to evaluate how we can improve various parameters vital to improve our response time and quality of logistics. India ranks at 44th out of 160 countries, while China stands at 12th Rank in terms of Logistical Performance Index (LPI) published by World Bank in 2018. Smaller countries like Indonesia, Hongkong, Taiwan fares better in terms of LPI. Some of the criterion, which need an evaluation are

  • Customs clearing process
  • Quality of infrastructure in terms of accessibility of inputs and deliverability of outputs
  • Shipments at competitive prices
  • Competitive logical services
  • Ability to track and trace shipments and
  • Timeliness of deliverable

While other parameters can be matched in short run, Timeliness and quality of Infrastructure the are two parameters which India legs behind as compared to China.

Capital Cost in a country is driven by Prime Lending Rate (PLR). Sovereign Banks always use PLR as a tool to incentivize infra and business projects. Current PLR of both the countries China and India are at PAR. So this is not an issue in the evaluation of criterion

Rent is the yield of Investment in Property. This is another factor cost for manufacturing industries. The Rental yield rate is 3.5% in Delhi as compared to 1.8% in Shanghai or 2.5 in Beijing. The Property rates are 2-4 times costlier in Chinese metro cities as compared to India’s metropolitan cities. This way the Rental cost should be lesser in China by almost 40-60%. The State Governments can provide Land at subsidized rate in order to decentralize already choking metro cities. This can be combined with Modi Government’s existing policy of Smart City Project.

FM, Ms N Seetharaman, announced Corporate tax rate for Domestic companies of 25.17% not claiming tax exemptions and 26.0%-29.12% for the companies intend to claim exemptions and incentives. The Corporate Tax rate of 17.16% is a boon for New Domestic Manufacturing set up on or after 1st October 2019. Foreign entrepreneurs will like to setup their manufacturing units as Domestic company to avoid a higher tax rate of 41.60%-43.68%. New tax slabs will make Indian products more competitive vs Chinese output as Chinese Corporate tax rate of 25% is higher by 8% in case of New manufacturing units.

Availability of Technology or Rights to manufacture are assumed to be provided by Import countries at a royalty. Normal Royalty rates are 2-5%. This loss can be compensated from the savings in Manpower, Rentals and Income tax.

Bottom Line

Manpower, Corporate tax rate is a plus point to India in the current scenario of availing opportunity. Power Generation, Supply chain Infra will be a challenge. Our Visionary PM Modi ji has already announced a spent of INR 100 Lakh Crores (appx $ 1.35 Trillion in next 5 years) but this opportunity came too early.

CAA-Polity or Humanity ?

There has been lot of uproar ever since the Citizenship Amendment Bill became Citizenship Amendment Act 2019. This has been rebuffed by the political parties, news agencies, foreign diplomats. However, no specific answer could be had about the furor.

How is Citizenship determined

A person can be Indian Citizen by birth, descent, registration and naturalisation as per Citizenship Act, 1955

  • By birth:
    • Every person born in India after 25.01.50 but before 01.07.1987,
    • Every person born between 01.07.1987 and 02.12.2004, if either of parent was Indian Citizen at the time of birth
    • Every person born after 03.12.2004, if either of parent is Indian Citizen and other is not an illegal migrant.
  • By Descent:
    • A person born outside India after 25.01.1950, if father was a citizen of India by birth.
    • A person born outside India between 10.12.1992, 04.12.2004, if either of his/her parent was a citizen of India by birth.
    • If a person born outside India after 02.12.2004 has to acquire citizenship,
  • By Registration:
    • A person of Indian origin been a resident of India for 7 years
    • A person of Indian origin who is a resident of any country outside undivided India.
    • A person who is married to an Indian citizen and is ordinarily resident for 7 years.
    • Minor children of persons who are citizens of India.
  • By Naturalization:
    • A person can acquire citizenship by naturalization if he/she is ordinarily resident of India for 12 years (throughout 12 months preceding the date of application and 11 years in the aggregate)
  • By Acquisition of Territory (not prescribed)
    • If India acquires a foreign territory, the residents of the territory naturally becomes Citizens of India

Government’s Powers to regulate, define special category under several acts passed from time to time

The Foreigners Act, 1946 (TFA) defines a foreigner as a person who is not a citizen of India. Section 3 gives power to Central Government (CG) to make provisions in respect of a particular foreigner, prescribed class for prohibiting, regulating or restricting the entry of foreigners. Section 3A (b) of TFA, (w.e.f. 19.1.1957) empowers CG to pass an order exempting any individual foreigner or class or description of foreigner.

The Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 (TPEIA) Section 3(2)(a) empowers CG to exempt either absolutely or on any condition, of any person or class of persons rules requiring possession of passports. The rules made under this section should be passed in both Houses of Parliament within 30 days. The section 4 of TPEIA empowers any officer of CG to arrest and under section 5 CG may in general or special order direct the removal of any person without a passport.

The Passport Act, 1967 (TPA) authorises Government to issue travel documents such as (a) emergency certificate for person; (b) certificate of identity of the purpose of establishing the identity of person; (c) or other document as may be prescribed

Amendments in Citizenship Act

The laws are doctrines but need amendment according to the situation. There have been five amendments (1986, 1992, 2003, 2005, 2019) in The Citizenship Act 1955 including the recent one in 2019. The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2003, was more stringent with regard to illegal migrants from Bangladesh and provided that either parent should not be an illegal migrant.

The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 provides that any person belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian community from Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan, who entered into India on or before the 31.12.2014 shall not be treated as illegal migrant. and that aggregate period of residence shall be reduced to 5 years from 11 years earlier for grant of Citizenship

It is apparent from the provisos, that CAA2019 provides fast track citizenship to the minorities in the three countries adjacent to India. The other communities are still eligible for citizenship through registration and naturalisation process. CAA2019 doesn;t takes away someone’s Citizenship.

Gandhiji’s promise to Hindus and Sikhs remained in Pakistan

Mahatma Gandhi on 07.07.1947 said that Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan have a right to come here if they do not want to live there. The GOI is bound to provide them employment, citizenship and comfortable life. Nehru was also of the similar view as those people never demanded partiion, they were the victims of the partition. In his interview, Kerala Governor Arif Mohammad Khan told ANI [article published on 21.12.2019]

There is no clear data on Non-Muslim population residing in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Independent Pakistan first carried out their census in 1951 and last one was 1998. The Non-Muslim Population remained in the range of 2-3% as per Pakistan as per their census. Bangladesh population census clearly shows a decline in non-muslims population from 23.2% to 9.6% in 2011.

Amid, the news of forced conversion surface every now and then from Pak and Bangladesh and even a percentile decline in persecuted minorities in these countries makes one to think of the promises our leaders once made, sub-standard life adjudicated and atrocities that are carried to them.

The Government of India shaped an overdue promise in to a Law without disturbing status of Indian Citizens.


Aryan Migration theory – Unscientific story?

Aryan Migration theory (AIT) was courted and forwarded by European Indologist around 200 years back. The theory was adopted by Britishers to rule India by degrade Indian civilization. AIT borrowed word Sanskrit name Arya from Rig Veda (ऋग् वेद) in which this word refers to a kind, favorable, attached to, true, devoted, dear, kind hearted. The Europeans found some common words spoken in both Sanskrit and European language such as पितृ [pitru] for Pedro or father in European. More words in below table :

AIT was coined at the time when most of the technologies either were not available or were in nascent stages. Even Excavation of Mohanjodaro started in 1912, DNA profiling in 1980, Astronomical software only came off very late. A conjecture based on premises lacking scientific evidences. AIT was never studied scientifically and lacked corroborative evidences.

With the discovery of fossils of highly advanced civilization near Rakhigarhi, Haryana. Earlier Chariots remains carbon dating ~2500 BC discovered in Sanauli, UP, India Paleontology of Thar region provides sufficient reasons to believe Saraswati Once existed as mentioned in Rigveda. It gives sufficient proofs to surmise that Indus Civilization is Rivgvedic Harappan Civilization

Let us try to analyse what scientifically proven evidences exists as on today to refute AIT theory. We will also see WHY there was a need for AIT.

There are many cycles of rise and extinction of civilizations. There are evidences of mankind existence traced to 370,000 years till 3,000 BC in India. (I will discuss later) . However, as per Biblical framework, the world came into existence only after 2349 BC after the world destroyed in Noah’s flood in 4004 BC. On the other hand using astronomy software, it is established that Kaliyuga started at 3102 BC when Lord Krishna returned to Vaikuntha. The Vedic claim is clearly a misfit to most popular biblical framework by 700 years. Interesting isn’t it?

Lets analyse what other faiths claim versus what modern science says.

Various faiths are of the view that the world came into being few thousand years ago, is in contrast to the modern Big Bang theory. Also there is no correlation from these beliefs about other stone-age findings world wide. The Indic Vedas, however, of the view that world has been created and destroyed several times. Clearly spanning to larger time line and encompassing various stages of Human development.

Having set the context, let us fast forward from Vedic Time to the Treaty of Spain and Portugal in 1479 to share half of the world each as a property. Treaty of Alcáçovas signed on 4th Sep 1479 between Castile (most of Spain) and Portugal (most powerful powers and hungry for more revenues of that time) for the division of the Atlantic Ocean and Overseas territories into two zones of influence. The treaty of Alcacovas can be considered to be start of colonialism. The first international document on generally accepted principle in the ideology and practice followed till decolonization in 19th and 20th centuries

Treaty of Tordesillas 1494-1506

Treaty of Alcacovas 1479

Treaty of Tordesillas 1494-1506 between Spain and Portugal ratified by Pope Julius II, head of Roman Catholic Church to divide and colonizing rights for all newly discovered lands of the world located between Portugal and Spain. According to the treaty, the lands to the east on the globe would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile (majorly Spain of today).

Division of World into two parts by Spain and Portugese under treaty

Now that the formal agreements to divide the world into two hemisphere to share amongst Portugal and Spain. Columbus (a Spanish Sailor) went westwards hemisphere and ‘discovered’ America in AD 1492. Vasco-Da-Gama 1460-1524 (a Portuguese Sailor) sailed eastwards to discover sea route to India or better known as colonial empire in Asia. He reached Indian shores, Calicut on 20th May 1498. It is known he made three trips to India and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas eve in 1524. One can read about what happened after these explorer reached on the shores of Indies.

While Spain and Portugal remained global power and colonization masters till 17th Century, rest of the Europe didn’t have any rhetoric. Their was identity crisis of nationalist people. Europeans found that some 70 words from Sanskrit matched with German language and there started adjoining Sanskrit language with European European. Few words are given in below table.

The Aryan Immigration Theory (AIT) was a theoretical framework created to claim the credit of much advanced and enrich Indian Vedic literature and civilization by Identity crisis struck Europeans. We will see how India was exploited not only financially, the intellectual literature (Vedas) were also ripped-off to fit in their narratives. British Colonisation envious of the great wealth generated by Portuguese and Spanish, England, France and Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks Series of wars in 17th and 18th Centuries including the Battle of Plassey in 1757, made Britishers a dominant colonial power.

Europeans Quest for Identity

By this eithteenth century, Spain and Portugal had established their own glorified identities and Britain had India as their colony. However, Germans didn’t have such Identity for their gratification. During this period German Indologist Herder 1744-1803 was fascinated by the Indian literature and culture. So much so, that he claimed Sanskrit to be his own. And the discovery of India was attributed to re-discovery of Europe. This philosophy of attachment with Sanskrit filled the Germans’ non-identity crisis. Another German Indologist Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829) studied Indian culture. Schlegal’s attempt to prove Germans of highly civilised nation and superior to Greeks and Romans, He looked upon India as his ancestors and described Sanskrit as mother of all languages. European identity needs and colonial indology led Aryan master race which was possibly the reason for second world war holocaust purely out of racism. Question : why they took Sanskrit as their own and not Indic Gods – Linguistic divide ? German William Jones 1746-1794 theorised how to map Indians on the Biblical framework. In doing so, he mapped ‘Manu’ as ‘Adam’ ‘Narasimha’ as ‘Nimrod’. Those Indian Elements which didn’t fit into Bible were distorted or rejected. As per Bible, god created world 4004 BCE and flood of Noah happened in 2349 BCE. So naturally, rejection of Indian Yugas spanning milions of years. Any text in Sanskrit that did not fit in Bible was termed as ‘mythology’. So much disappointed with the vastness and timeline Vedas belong that he said, “Either the first eleven chapters of genesis are true or the whole fabric of our national religion is false” (The God’s of Greece, Italy, Asiatic researchers, vol. 1, 1788:p 225)

Jones was the first to propose a racial division of India involving an Aryan invasion but at that time there was insufficient evidence to support it (Bates, Crispin (1995). “Race, Caste and Tribe in Central India: the early origins of Indian anthropometry”. In Robb, Peter (ed.). The Concept of Race in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 231) . It was an idea later taken up by British administrators

Britishers took forward this theory of Aryan’s racism superiority to control its new colony ‘India’. Lord Thomas Macaulay was appointed 1830s Governor General of the Indian provinces won by the East India Company. Macaulay his great ambition was to convert India to a Christian country. However, he realized that the Vedas were considered very sacred by all Hindus. Also the Brahmans, who preserved the Vedas, commanded a great respect. He pioneered the English system of education in India with a hope that the effect of his new education system would be “prodigious” (his term). Macaulay wanted Indologist European scholar Max Muller (1823-1900) to write about the Vedas in such a way that they would be considered nothing more than collections of some crude rhymes written by illiterate nomadic Aryan invaders, who came from Central Asia to India on horse backs. Macaulay thought that the attestation of an academician would look more authentic and unquestionable.

Mueller propounded the theory of Arya as a race of a family of languages and who spoke them – linguistic divide. At the same time the church evangelists working in South India to construct a Dravidian race identity because it suited there Christianity expansion. as per Max Mueller Riv Veda claimed only Brahman, Kshatriya as Aryan and categorized Sudra as non-Aryan. He called “Arya” (or Aryan) a race even though the Vedas mention nowhere that “Arya” is a race. Only many years later Muller realized his mistake and tried to emphasize that “Arya” does not denote a race but people who speak “Indo-European” languages. But the damage had already been done and his hypothesis of Aryan Invasion Theory had become a historical “fact”.

Max Muller, being a devout Christian, while assigning date of the oldest Veda, the Rigveda, could not give an earlier date than the origin of the world, which according to the Bible is 4004 years before Christ. Later the scientists estimated that the earth is about 6 billion years old. Muller arbitrarily wrote that Aryans came to India in 1500 B.C. and the Rigveda was written in 1200 B.C.

According to Hindu traditions, Kaliyuga started on the day Lord Krishna breathed his last on this earth. When this happened there was a conjunction of seven planets – Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury, sun and moon. It is astronomically estimated that this occurred on February 18, 3102 B.C. The Vedas definitely existed much before ‘Mahabharata’ period).

Max Muller’s Aryan linguistic category was converted by Risley while carrying out as commissioner 1901 Census in India , carried out “Nasal Index” to classify jatis as Hindus and tribes as non-Hindus. He decided that Indian consists of 2378 main casts and tribes and 43 races.

We saw how, quest of power and colonization led to the need of converting, manipulating, fitting in a manner to justify their Ruling of India as a colony. No-one had ever heard of Aryans coming to India upto mid-nineteenth century. One had also not heard that foreign people of “Aryan race” invaded India, conquered the indigenous people of “Dravidian race” and pushed them to southern part of India. However, now all this is part of the Indian history written by the British rulers of India. Europeans were exposed to Sanskrit and the Hindu scriptures sometime in the seventeenth century. They discovered that Sanskrit and the European languages had many common words. Thus the western scholars arrived at a conclusion that the “Indo-European” languages must have had a common origin. Their hypothesis was that from Central Asia a section of Sanskrit speaking Aryans came to India and another section of the same people migrated to Europe. We also observed false theory of Aryan and Dravidian race just a divisive policy of colonial masters.

AIT proved to be a theoretical & ethnological concept after various discoveries since 1914 excavations by ASI

In around 1914, when the ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the Indus Valley were excavated, the archaeologists found by carbon-dating that they were at least 5,000 years old. They were beautifully planned cities with wide streets, magnificent buildings and good drainage system. Britisher’s were still defiant of AIT theory. They stated that the Hindu caste order was reason for India’s Poverty. But failed to explain how Brahmins with worship rituals contributed make India top with 30% of world GDP. Apparently, they were escaping their responsibility of famine and poverty due to extraction of resources, higher taxes on indigenous production, re-importing goods exported from India, etc. An estimated 3 Trillion USD was drained out of India by the colonial masters.

Eventhough Government of India has acknoledged the Aryan Myth as fake an a concoction of British Colonisation, it fails to remove the topic from the education system of the country. The Aryan Theory is still taught in everyday classes throughout India as history and fact despite the overwhelming proves against it. It also a well known fact that Max Muller had confessed during his later days

Paleontologist evidences

Some evidences Migration was actually outwards of India and not otherway round

Discovery of ancient stone tools rewrites
the history of technology in India : As per modern science, homo-erectus extinct 600000 years ago Modern man came into being 80000 years ago. Question who was making precision tools in 350000 years

Narmada Man
The discovery in 1982 of a fossilized skull in the central Narmada valley in Madhya Pradesh, India, provides the first scientifically recorded evidence of human skeletal remains from the Indian subcontinent dating to the late Middle Pleistocene of 300,000 to 150,000 years ago. Dr. Arun Sonakia of GSI described Narmada Man to the hominid taxon Homo erectus narmadensis.
As per Raj Vedam The excavation in Keezhadi, Tamil Nadu, based on the studies and available data, the carbon dating should be in an interval of 821 BCE to 2974 BCE for the terminus layer.

Charriot excavated in Sanauli

is another proof that Horse domestication coincides if not precedes that of in Eurasia in BCE ~ 2500

Were Shrinking and shifting Rivers were reasons of extinction of Harrappan Civilisation?

Another study by A R Nair, S V Navada and S M Rao in their study on ground water problems in Thar Desert states that Reconstruction of the past climate in the region from palaeoclimatological and palaeontological studies indicate that cooler and pluvial conditions in the Holocene were present in thisregion during which recharge to these aquifers
could have taken place

The Indus civilization was the largest—but least known—of the first great urban cultures that also included Egypt and Mesopotamia. Named for one of their largest cities, the Harappans relied on river floods to fuel their agricultural surpluses. Today, numerous remains of the Harappan settlements are located in a vast desert region far from any flowing river.

Saraswati River is known as the holiest river of India, as much as it has retained its sacred character right from the Rigvedic age to the present day. The name`Saraswati’ is frequently used most of the ancient literatures like Rigveda, Yajurveda, Mahabharatha and Puranas. The Rigveda is supposed to be the oldest text which was probably composed more than 8000 years ago. [10]

Genetic Evidences

An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers (R1N1) [11]

The individual was from a population that is the largest source of ancestry for South Asians
Iranian-related ancestry in South Asia split from Iranian plateau lineages >12,000 years ago
First farmers of the Fertile Crescent contributed little to no ancestry to later South Asians

Conclusion [3]&[5]

The story of the Aryan invasion theory reveals how a thesis that reflected the European cultural experience of India gradually transformed itself into the ‘historical truth’ about India. This thesis had grown within a specific system of theological and historical beliefs that Europeans shared and depended for its coherence and plausibility on this system. Its fundamental theoretical outlines reflected conceptual patterns in the European cultural experience, rather than any scientific or empirical research into the Indian past. [Marianne Keppens and Jakob De Roover]

At the root of the trouble lies the dating of the Vedas to 1200 BCE by the German Scholar Max Muller. He did it on a very ad hoc basis and when his
contemporaries, such as Goldstucker, Whitney and Wilson, challenged his methodology, he surrendered by saying, “Whether the Vedas were composed in 1000 or 2000 or 3000 BC no one on earth can ever determine.” The pity is that in spite of such a candid confession by Max Muller himself many of his followers even today stick to this date, or at the most give concession to 1500 BCE. [BB Lal 2015]

Must watch more videos

  1. Timesof India on Harrappan Proof 
  2. Another report from TimesofIndia
  3. The Aryans were indigenous: neither invaders or immigrants – BBLAL, 2017
  4. Macaulay’s Minutes
  5. Orientalism and the Puzzle of the Aryan Invasion Theory
  6. Special Contribution of India to Knowledge System
  7. Dr Raj Vedam’s Video through Youtube Channel Srijan Talks
  8. Swarajy Mag on Chariot found in Sanauli, UP,
  9. Indiatimes report on Rakhi Garhi, Haryana
  10. Regional Remote Sensing Centre, NRSC/ISRO, Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, Jodhpur
  11. An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers
  12. Treaty Image Credit Treaty of Tordesillas 1494-1506 By Original: Biblioteca Nacional de LisboaPhoto: User:Joserebelo – Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa, Public Domain,
  13. By Nagihuin – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
  15. Ancient civilizations continuity civilization harappan, etc… large period of rishis, enormous material ignored and forgotten hindu order created poverty but its invasion indian knowledge seeded world vut told otherwise no identity by vedic science riv veda mentioned sarawati in 2000 BCE while claimed that it was written in 1500BCE Astronomy derived dates provides sufficient proofs But claimed that Upanishads, Brahmas, Samahitas written in 300 CE R1a genome gone outwards not inward of India Mainstream narrative states Indian expanded eastwards not Westward, Indic civilization is recent While there are series of ancient history. They created an anchor points and called all Indian chronology as mythology

Evolution of USD as forex

What is Foreign Exchange?

There are several accepted Global/Reserve currencies viz USD, GBP, YEN, EURO etc. A country needs currency to settle Import/exports of goods and services and grants and subsidies in various forms.  Besides countries keep Gold, SDR, Sovereign Debts, Treasury bills.  Countries keep Foreign exchange in their vault to regulate exports and imports, meet expenses, repay withdrawing investors in case of war or emergency, settle loans, Investments, and goods & services bills;

Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserve (COFER)

The foreign currency reserves of all countries contributes around 58% of USD. Out of 11.418 Trillion USD Forex reserve, 6.617 Trillion USD are in US Denominated USD. This was 51% in Q4 of 2016. Confidence in USD by other countries have been increasing over 2 years.
[Refer Graph 1]

Why USD as an acceptable Forex

US constructed its Gold Repository vault at Denver Mint in 1935. The Gold stored at Denver Mint between Jan 1937 to June 1937 was 10947 metric tones and by March 1941 the Gold storage swelled to 19757 metric tones which was 65.58& of total US Gold reserves.

Prior to 1944 Bretton Woods agreement, most countries were on the gold standard. This also meant that all the countries were liable to settle their currency liabilities in Gold. In 1944, countries met in New Hampshire, and agreed to peg the exchange rate for their currencies to the U.S. dollar. US being having largest gold reserves that time, gave confidence to countries for backing their currencies with Dollar

IMF in 1969, created a monetary reserve currency to supplement existing money reserves of member countries created in response to the limitation of gold and dollars as mean to settle international account

Constraint in Supply of USD to meet increasing needs of the world

During 1970s, in order to combat inflation countries began demanding gold for the dollars. Rather than allow Fort Knox to be depleted of all its reserves, President Nixon in his controversial economic policies leading to stagflation, separated gold from USD pegging (already world’s top reserve currency at that time)

Concerns over US Deficit resulting in value of USD

in 2009, China and Russia raised concerns of intrinsic value of USD in case the inflation sets. US might print US Treasury to support its debts and its budget deficit.

They demanded for a new Global Currency not connected to individual nations and is relatively stable independent of characteristic change in individual currencies.

Yuan was awarded the status of reserve currency by IMF on 30th November, 2015. Yuan also found its place in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) Basket on 1st October 2016. The other currencies forming part of SDR are Euro, Yen, GBP and USD. To be able to be able to freely trade as forex, Yuan must be free-float currency.

Is USD still a better bet

Answer is Yes, as the other countries hold 6.6 Trillion Dollars in their COFER and any devaluation in USD will lead to severe financial impacts on other countries. Therefore, it is in best interest of the other countries to keep faith in USD.

At the same time, it is important to note that the US Debt-GDP ratio has been continuously rising since 2007 and is at 108% in 2020. The similar ratio was observed in 1941 when World War ended. Since FED rates are very low, a ratio Debt-GDP ratio of 300% is considered as comfortable. This ratio at 50% can be alarming for other developing countries with higher interest rate.

Inflation or Recession in US can lead to higher interest and higher debt servicing ratio, which can raise nerves of other countries. [Refer Graph 2]

Is Gold changing hands? Are we prepared?

An estimated above the ground 190,040 Metric Tonnes Gold exists in the world and 50,000 Metric Tonnes Gold still to be mined.

The Current Gold reserves of top 10 Countries. The total Gold reserves of 20 Countries is 30,000 Metric Tonnes (~18%) of Total gold available in the world.

US Central Bank still number 1 in terms of holding Gold of ~8100 Metric Tonnes is almost halved since start of its Gold Repository in 1941. At the same time. India holds only 633 Metric Tonnes in 2019. While Germany, Italy, France, China, Russia holds sizable chunk of Gold reserves. India needs to evaluate its Gold reserve Position vis a vis its Forex reserves [refer graph 3]

Is increase in Forex a Euphoria?

India’s Foreign exchange reserves rose to all time high and are currently at 476 Billion USD. India’s COFER consists of 6.8% as Gold while rest 93.2% is in foreign currency, SDRs, and reserved position with IMF. The Gold reserve ratio is 16% for the top 20 countries. US Tops the list with 77% as Gold reserves.

US, Germany, Italy, France holds Gold reserves more than 50% of their total exchange reserves. However, China holds 3% and India holds 7% This is a contrast for developed and developing countries. [refer graph 4]

Similarly, Net FDI Inflow of 529 Billion USD since 1998 till 2019 are valuing at 37 Lakh Crores as against their value of investment of 30 Lakh Crores Rupees. MTM liability of reduction by 25% due to dollar valuation. — Saving However, Gold value would have been more than doubled.

The accretion to foreign currency to our foreign exchange reserves since 1998 is 413 Billion USD, however, had this addition to foreign currency been invested at prevailing rate in respective years, the Forex reserves would have valued at 959 Billion USD. [refer table 1].

Of course, market equilibrium of increased demand and limited supply of Gold would try to set in. But then we should also remember that G7 countries hold big Gold reserves.

Bottom line

We have demonstrated that accretion of Gold inplace of USD would have doubled in terms of its current value. Whereas holding USD since 1998 gave us a saving of 25% due to MTM valuation of Dollar. Its time that we carefully evaluate our COFER in order to avoid any unforeseen USD valuation risk for our hard earned Foreign Exchange reserves.



India is 3rd in terms of GDP at PPP

Nominal GDP is the aggregation of all Gross Value additions in one year in any country at prevailing prices. It sums up all Business outputs, Business Investments, Government spending and Net Imports

Nominal GDP of top 10 Countries

“World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019”

But wait before we jump into conclusion let us try to understand how the denominator USD itself gets calculated

We all know value of one Rupee today is more than one Rupee tomorrow. This universal truth is valid for all the ‘financial assets’ in the world (including Fixed Deposits, Shares, PPFs, etc.). If we deflate value of a Dollar in 1960 with the yearly inflation that US underwent till 2019, the residual value of a dollar is 11.6 cents. Similarly a Rupee in 1960 has a purchase value of 1.4 Paisa due to inflation in India. We saw that Indian currency lost its value on time horizon faster than USD due to relatively higher inflation rate viz a viz US economy’s inflation. Indian Rupee lost its value 8.26 faster than USD. When we multiply this inflation parity factor of 8.26 with exchange rate of 4.76 INR/USD as on 1960, we get value of 39.33. This is the value of Dollar had all the valuations being driven by inflations/deflations.

Dollar value versus INR (split between inflation and other factors)

But that is not the case as Dollar rate on 2019 was 71 INR/USD. There is a settled gap of 32 Rupees as on 2019. This means that parity rate is not purely out of inflation of countries, there are other factors responsible for the gap in parity index such as standard of living, cost of living (inflation), resources of countries, fiscal health of the countries etc. viz a viz to each other.

The Big Mac Index is the price of the burger in various countries that are converted to one currency (such as the US dollar) and used to measure purchasing power parity. As per Big Mac Index USD should value at 33 INR in terms of purchase power of an identical burger in India vs USA. INR 33 is Not very far from our calculated value of 39 INR. As we mentioned earlier, this is due to several factors working simultaneously on the valuation of relative parity index of two countries.

Big Mac Index source :
Hey we just demonstrated that the value of burger is different in different countries

The World Bank releases PPP index calculated by estimating set of prices for items chosen from a common list of precisely defined items participating countries. These common lists include both regional items, priced in the region, as well as global items, priced in all ICP regions. These sets of prices cover the whole range of final goods and services included in the GDP: household consumption expenditures, government expenditures, and gross fixed capital formation expenditures. [2]

Now that we have Nominal GDP in local currency and PPP Index, let us divide both numbers. you will find a new global power order. China tops the list with 27.31 Trillion USD followed by 21.44 Trillion USD and India at number 3 position with 5.75 Trillion USD GDP at PPP.

BJP leaders must stop saying publicly that India’s GDP sixth largest in the world. … India’s GDP third largest today

Dr Subramaniyam Swamy (Rajya Sabha MP, Fmr. Union Cabinet Minister, Harvard Ph.D in Economics ) in his tweet on 19th March 2019


  2. “World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019”.

Interesting YouTube Video

Dravidians And Aryans Were amid Each Other Proof.

Pandya King fought along the Pandavas,his daughter was married to Arjuna when hwas on a Pilgrimage to South. So this argument that the Tamil and the Vedic people were mutually exclusive is erroneous and mischievous. 2.The Vedic people considered the Dravidians as Barbarians and uncultured. They were called as Dasyu meaning Slaves. Again sheer nonsense.

Dravidians And Aryans Were amid Each Other Proof.

Ekatma Manava Darshan

Prodded by ModiJi, I’m writing about a book that I read & why I think it is important
One of the important book that I’ve read recently is the Sanatan Dharmik, completely Indian, Integral Humanism viz Ekatma Manava Dharshanam of Pt Deendayal Upadhyaya Ji
Being Sanatan loosely translated as Eternal, it is good for all times to come. It propunds the need right from an Individual, to a group to citizens at large to attain the 4 Purusharts of Sanatan existence comprising
1-Arth ( various aspects of wealth creation)
2-Kaama (Pleasure or seeking love, procreation)
3-Keeping Dharma (Righteous Ethics & Values) foremost
4-So that the spiritually inclined can attain Moksha or realisation of oneself
It appealed to me both as an ism for advcemement of the individual & the society at large from Panchayat to the Union of India
As I read it I was amazed at the extent to which #Anthyodya is implemented delivering good governance & EMPOWERment to the deprived to help them fight their war on poverty & win
It is also the fountain head of the largest political party in the world, the BJP
The purpose of this blog is to generate an interest in reading & understanding it & making it a matter of research by Universities teaching Humanities & Politics
There’s a compelling case for it’s Understanding & adoption perennially as opposed to other isms which are circumstantial
Twitter : nrajabpcl

Solar – New Sustainable International Energy

Energy in various forms has been keeping entire Universe in motion. various names are given as mechanical, Kinetic, renewable energy, potential energy, wind, nuclear energy.

All types of energy has drawn their present condition from Sun in one form or the other. Fossil fuel, Crude oil etc. Except for all renewable energy source, all energy sources are going to vanish sooner or later. It is estimated that we have drawn almost ____% of through extraction of oil wells, Coal, Forests. They constitute ___ % of our present energy needs. What next when we have extracted all of these energy source.

It is estimated that Sun produces ___ jules of energy of which Earth receives ___ Jules,The energy gets reflected due to environment and heat is trapped due to green house. The energy so received by Earth is capable of feeding 100 earth’s

The world electricity consumption in 2018 was 25000 TWh and estimated 8000 billion litre petrol consumption in world is equivalent ot ~72000TWh. This makes our total energy requirement to 100,000 TWh. One Squre Meter SOLAR Panel is capable of generating 150-200 Watts Per Hour. If we discount it by seasonality factor and available day time the per hour generation becomes 29 Watts. One Square miles of Solar Panel is capable of generating 0.029 TWh. To meet Total Energy Demand we will need appx 2% of available land surface of 197 Million Square Kilometer on earth.

We observe that daily Sunlight is able to cater energy needs of 50 earths. The major hinderances are the CAPEX and T&D Costs.

We will need an installed capacity of 11.415 TW to feed world energy demand of 2018. At current cost of 0.75$ per Watt the total CAPEX need is approximately 8.6 Trillion Dollars.


Pre-Islamic Goddess seated on a swan found in Saudi Arabia, preserved in British Museum, and image of Goddess Saraswati as currently widespread in India

Cow – As an Economic Partner!

Cow is believed to have emerged from ‘Samudramanthan’. She is revered as a Godess by Hindus since Vedic Era because only ‘gives’ since birth to her death. She can help alleviate #Rural Poverty!

A Cow can continue to give us 2-4 KG #BIOGAS per day and can run a rurul kitchen for 10 days.

Its urine can work as a pesticide and insecticides if it is combined with Neem leaf or ‘Nimboli’

It is very effective’s alternatives to chemical fertilizers by enhancing productivity in long term with maintaining the soil health and enhances the microbial population.
Cowdung manure increases Soil’s organic matter, water holding capacity

Most rural population cannot afford conventional sand-cement mixture.
The ‘building blocks’ using Cow dung is low cost, resistant to water and durable.
It maintains thermal comfort (inhouse -temperature)

To promote #sustainable#selfreliant growth in #grams#Cow can play a vital role in #agroeconomics.

The total Economic Value of a cow (inc. value of its horns, skins) is close to crore INR.

With close to 15 Crores Cows, the economic value of Sacred COW is sizeable to GDP!!

Manure helps reduction in Water use for farming and natural food for Earthworm.
Fertilisers kill Earthworm! which otherwise would help rain water seepage of water by converting land into productive soil.

Photo by Magda Ehlers from Pexels

An Earth letter to Human!

THINK while we take a break!!

As #COVID__19 is to Human; Human are to Nature
Think of Nature was to find vaccine for itself of infestation by us ‘The Human Being’.

EARTH letter to Human👇

With 8 Billion, and still counting, you have caused severe damage to me.

#Deforestation has been major cause of disturbing my other family members animal. What if you were to live alone without Animals and Vegetation? You have shaved 3.9 million square miles (10 million Sq KM) of forest since start of 20th Century


#GlobalWarming has caused Glaciers been receding since 18000 BC. However, rate of depletion has increased alarmingly since Industrial revolution.
Ancient Dwarka Nagari was once an occupied place submerged into water. You must think again before it engulfs more land

Animals you eat have already outweighed the total weight of wild animal for your #NonVegetarian habits.
You bred them to satisfy your buds. Another cause of increase in green house effect.

How do I warn you of the pain I am suffering. You don;t understand my language. Hurricanes, Wild Fire, Rain deficit, floods. This is only a sign language I know


Now that we are taking a break. Choose your choices.

You can chose to cure my deeper sickness.

By protecting wild and wonderful form, you protect yourself.

What Future do you choose?

source …

Hindu Elements in Indian Constitution.

Struggle for Hindu Existence

Part. 3Part. 4

Hindu Elements in Indian Constitution. The implication of Hindu Culture and Tradition in Indian Constitution.

IC Pic 1 pg frontUpananda Brahmachari | Hindu Existence Bureau | 26 January 2014:: India i.e. Bharat is celebrating its 65th anniversary of adopting its Constitution as it was taken granted on the day of 26th January, 1950. We are very much proud for the Indian Constitution and celebrating the Republic Day, but we never look through the Hindu Elements in Indian Constitution or the implication of Hindu Culture and Tradition in it.

The partition of India in 1947, made this unique land of cultural unity divided into two pieces on the basis of two nation theory, Hindu-Muslim basis which was undesirable to the majority people.  But, the communal minority Muslims procured their holy land of Pakistan on the strength swords and the cunning politics in connivance of the British who adopted ‘divide-&-rule’ policy.

Though least blood shedder and…

View original post 1,485 more words


Father!’ a child cried.

Hoping to see a familiar face in the crowd.

A voice echoed in his head.

He sprinted towards the moon.

Swimming through the crowd.

Paving his way with bricks of pride and sorrows.

Eyes welled up.

The pain flowed with ease.

Heart throbbing impatiently.

All he waited for was caressing his child. Gently. Softly.

Then their eyes met.

Reflecting love.

Amalgamation of love and anger. ‘ Father!’ He cried again.

Tears rolling down his cheeks.

The arid land was lively again.

In the middle of the labyrinth.

Everything tangled up.

Yet it was bright and beautiful.

The warmth was worth devouring.

Smiling and smiling again.

Against their temperament.

Pondering over the mistakes of their lives.

Shying away for a moment.

But then again, they tried to forget.

Every bitter memory that dwells in their hearts.

Arms wrapped around each other.

Heavenly feeling.

And now they stand miles apart.

But still wish they could experience the euphoria once again.

Important dates in Indian History

1कण्व वंश30 -75
3विक्रम संवत् का आरम्भ ?58
4शुंग राजवंश75-154
5शक् संवत् का आरम्भ ?78 ई०पू०
6एलारा का क्षेत्र, श्रीलंका के चोल राजा101-145 ई०पू०
7कनिष्कक का राज्याौभिषेक120 ई०पू०
8अशोक द्वारा कलिंग पर विजय ?261 ई०पू०
9अशोक का शासन232-273 ई०पू०
10चंद्रगुप्तस मौर्य के हाथों सेल्यु कस की पराजय305 ई०पू०
11गुप्तग युग का आरम्भ ,320 ई०पू०
12सिकंदर का भारत पर आक्रमण ?325-326 ई०पू०
13भारत पर एलेक्जें डर का हमला।326-327 ई०पू०
14विक्रमादित्या2 का राज्यााभिषेक380 ई०पू०
15चीनी यात्री फाहयान की यात्रा405-411 ई०पू०
16कुमार गुप्त -1 का राज्याेभि‍षेक415 ई०पू०
17स्कंरदगुप्तत का राज्यारभिषेक455 ई०पू०
18महावीर का निर्वाण ?468 ई०पू०
19गौतम बुद्ध का महापरिवार्न ?483 ई०पू०
20महावीर का जन्म ?540 ई०पू०
21गौतम बुद्ध का जन्म ?563 ई०पू०
22हिजरी संवत् का आरम्भ ?622 ई०
23हर्षवर्धन का शासन ?606-647 ई०
24हेनसांग की भारत यात्रा ?630 ई०
25सिंध पर पहला अरब आक्रमण712 ई०पू०
26कन्नौपज के भोज राजा का राज्यायभिषेक836 ई०पू०
27चोल शासक राजाराज का राज्यााभिषेक985 ई०पू०
28सुल्तासन महमूद का राज्यारभिषेक998 ई०पू०
29सोमनाथ मंदिर पर आक्रमण ?1025 ई०
30तराईन का प्रथम युद्ध ?1191 ई०
31तराईन का द्वितीय युद्ध ?1192 ई०
32गुलाम वंश की स्थापना ?1206 ई०
33दिल्लीव की गद्दी पर कुतुबुद्दीन ऐबक का राज्यावभिषेक1206 ई०
34भारत पर चंगेज खान का हमला (मंगोल का आक्रमण)1221 ई०पू०
35रजिया सुल्ता०न का राज्यादभिषेक1236 ई०पू०
36रजिया सुल्ता०न की मृत्युद1240 ई०पू०
37अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का हमला1296 ई०पू०
38मोहम्मदद तुगलक का राज्या्भिषेक1325 ई
39दक्षिण में विजयानगर साम्राज्या की स्थाेपना1336 ई०
40फिरोजशाह का राज्यारभिषेक1351 ई०
41तैमूरलंग द्वारा भारत पर हमला1398 ई०
42फरघाना में बाबर का राज्यामभिषेक1494 ई०
43वास्कोडिगामा का भारत आगमन ?1498 ई०
44भारत में आर्यों का आगमन ?1500 ई०
45पानीपत का प्रथम युद्ध ?1526 ई०
46बाबर की मृत्युम और हुमायूं का राज्याथभिषेक1530 ई
47शेरशाह सूरी ने हुमायूं का हराया1539
48कन्नौहज की लड़ाई1540
49पानीपत का द्वितीय युद्ध ?1556 ई०
50पानीपत का तृतीय युद्ध ?1761 ई०
51हल्दी घाटी का युद्ध ?1576 ई०
52अकबर का राज्यारोहण ?1556 ई०
53तालिकोटा का युद्ध ?1565 ई०
54दीन-ए-इलाही धर्म की स्थापना ?1582 ई०
55ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी की स्थासपना1600 ई०
56शिवाजी का जन्मइ1627 ई०
57औरंगजेब का राज्यािभिषेक1659 ई०
58नादिरशाह का भारत पर हमला1739 ई०
59प्लासी का युद्ध ?1757 ई०
60बक्सर का युद्ध ?1764 ई०
61प्रथम एंग्लो०-मैसूर युद्ध|1767-69
62प्रथम आंग्ल-मैसूर युद्ध ?1776- 69 ई०
63महाराजा रणजीत सिंह का जन्म|1780 ई०
64द्वितीय आंग्ल-मैसूर युद्ध ?1780- 84 ई०
65पिट्स इंडिया एक्ट|1784 ई०
66फ्रांसीसी क्रांती ?1789 ई०
67तृतीय आंग्ल-मैसूर युद्ध ?1790- 92 ई०
68चतुर्थ आंग्ल-मैसूर युद्ध ?1799 ई०
69टीपू सुल्तालन की मृत्यु्1799 ई०
70बंगाल में स्थायी बंदोबस्त ?1793 ई०
71बसेन की संधि|1802 ई०
72अमृतसर की संधि|1809 ई०
73सती प्रथा निषिद्ध|1829 ई०
74राजा राममोहन राय ने इंग्लैंड का दौरा किया1830 ई०
75महाराजा रणजीत सिंह की मौत|1839 ई०
76प्रथम एंग्लो-अफगान युद्ध|1839-42 ई०
77प्रथम आंग्ल-सिख युद्ध|1845-46 ई०
78सिपाही विद्रोह या आजादी की पहली लड़ाई|1857 ई०
79रवीन्द्रनाथ टैगोर का जन्म|1861 ई०
81भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस की नींव1885 ई०
82बंगाल में प्रथम विभाजन1905
83मुस्लिम लीग की स्थापना ?1906
84मार्ले – मिन्टो सुधार ?1909
85चीनी क्रांति ?1911
86प्रथम विश्वयुद्ध ?1914 -18
87रुसी क्रांति ?1917
88असहयोग आंदोलन ?1920 – 22
89साइमन कमीशन का आगमन ?1928
90दांडी मार्च नमक सत्याग्रह ?1930
91गाँधी इरविन समझौता ?1931
92प्रथम गोलमेज सम्मेलन ?1930
93द्वितीय गोलमेज सम्मेलन?1931
94तृतीय गोलमेज सम्मेलन ?1932
95द्वितीय विश्वयुद्ध ?1939 – 45
96क्रिप्स मिशन का आगमन ?1942
97कैबिनेट मिशन का आगमन ?1946
98महात्मा गांधी की हत्या ?1948
99चीन का भारत पर आगक्रम ?1962
100भारत – पाक युद्ध ?1965
101          ताशकंद- समझौता ?1966

Rajiv Dixit’s Golden speeches

Rajiv Dixitji was an activist dedicated his life to unravel Indian vedic sciences, Home remedis. This page is dedicated to his contribution to the Healthy and Sound society.

The collection is from YouTube mostly. and I downloaded for people at large to get benefited. Please scroll thru the pages to get the videos

You will need to view this page on your computer browser. Please go to end and scroll thru pages for more valuable videos

Ancient Maps

Here is a fascinating map of all the places of ancient India as mentioned in Mahābhārata. This map is put on display in Purana Qila, which is the ancient Indraprastha of Mahābhārata. Take a look at the map and see the name of your region during those days.

True Indology@TIinExile


To the NW in Afghanistan is country of Yavanas, the Bactrian Indo-Greeks (Modern Begram). To their East in Hindukush is the country of Aśvakas and Kāmbojas. The Kamviri Nuristanis of Afghanistan, Kamboj of Punjab and Kammas of Andhra Pradesh could be their partial descendants.


To their immediate east are the Cīnās, Lāḍakas (Ladakh) and Rāmaṭhas(Bhotas). These were Tibetan people . Chinese were known as Mahācīnās.


To the south of Kāmbojas is the country of Gāndhāra with its capital at Takshashila (Taxila). This is the Attock-Swat-Charsadda-Peshawar-Islamabad region. To the south of Gāndhāra is the kingdom of Kekaya, which is the modern Dera Ismail Khan region between Jhelum and Indus.


To their south is the kingdom of Sibi and its capital Sibipura(which is the modern Sehwan). To their east in the modern Majha region of Punjab is the ancient kingdom of Madrā. To their east is Vāhikas on the other side of the river Iravati(Ravi).


Bahlikas is misplaced in this map and they should really belong to Balkh, Afghanistan. To the North of Vāhikas is the kingdom of Trigarta with its capital at Sakala(Sialkot). This is the Jammu-Sialkot region.


To their north is the kingdom of Kashmir (Kaśmīra) with its capital at Rājapura (Rajouri). Remember that Shrinagara (Srinagar) was established by Ashoka who post dates Mahābhārata. As such, it does not appear in this map


To the North of Kashmir is the kingdom of Daradas (dards of Gilgit-Chitral-Yasin). To the east of Trigarta is the kingdom of “Audumbaras” which is the ancient kingdom of Himachal. To their east is the kingdom of “Khasas” who are the Nepali people speaking “Khas kura”.


Interestingly, Malavas and Yaudheyas still inherit the Indus-Satluj region in the Mahābhārata. In the post Mahābhārata age, Malavas win over lands from east Punjab to Madhya Pradesh. Malwa of East Punjab (Ludhiana) and Malwa of Madhya Pradesh is still named after this tribe.


Yaudheyas also moved east and conquered Haryana region. They established their capital at Rohitaka (Rohtak). To the south of Punjab are ‘Sauviras’, who are the modern ‘Saraiki’ speakers of Sindh-Multan.


To their east is the kingdom of Kuru, the modern Haryana region around Delhi. It had two capitals- Indraprastha (Delhi) and Hastinapura (Meerut). To their South-East is the kingdom of Panchalas. It also had two capitals. “Ahicchatra” in the north and “Kampilya” in the south.

According to Mahābhārata, Ahicchatra was ruled by Drona’s son Ashvatthama. As Guru Dakshina, Arjuna brought before Drona the King Drupada as a captive. Drupada then gave the state of Ahicchatra to Droṇa and got his release. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Ślokas 73 to 76, Chapter 137)


To the west of Panchalas is the kingdom of “Yadus” with its capital at Mathura. To their south is the kingdom of “Kuntala” (Gwalior) and “Nishada” (Bundelkhand). The west of Mathura was conquered by other Yadu tribes like ‘Andhakas” and ‘Surasenas


The Matysa kingdom belonged to Jaipur region with its capital at Viratanagara (modern Bairat). Vatsa was the ancient kingdom of prayaga region with its capital at ‘Kaushambi’. “Magadha” is the modern patna region with its capital at Girivraja (Rajgir).


North Bihar (Mithila) region was inhabited by ‘Videhas’ with their capital at ‘Mithila’. Vrijis had their capital at Sravasti (Balrampur). To their west was the kingdom of Kosalas with its capital at Ayodhya.


To the west of Andhra was the kingdom of ‘Kuntala’ which is the modern day “Uttara Kannada” and South Maharastra region. To the North-West of Kuntala was Goa which was then known as Aparanta. To the South of Kuntala is the kingdom of Karnata which is the Bangalore region.


To the South of Karnata, are the three countries of Tamilakam. The country of Dravidas & their capital of Kanchi. The country of Pandyas & their capital Madura(madurai) in the extreme South. The country of Cholas on the banks of Kaveri.The country of Keralas in the Malabar coast.

In the Karna Parva(12.15) of Mahabharata, all three kingdoms: Pandyas, Keralas and Cholas are clubbed as “Dravidas”. Described as tall and broad chested warriors with courage like that of ruttish elephant. Dravida= entire region comprising today’s Tamilnadu and Kerala.


In the Mahabharata war, the Pandya king fought on the side of Pandavas. He slaughtered the armies of Duryodhana. He slaughtered the Bahlikas, Khasas, Kuntalas. His bravery was praised in Mahabharata. In the end, he was k!lled by the Drona’s valiant son Aśvatthāmā


The city of Gokarna in the South Konkana region was already famous in Mahabharata (3.275 vulgate) as “the favorite resort of Lord Shiva”. Agastya’s hermitage existed to the south of it. And it was here that Vatapi was “digested” by Agastya according to Puranic lore.


In the Central India roughly corresponding to Malwa region and western Madhya pradesh was the country of “Avanti”. Ujjayani (Ujjain) was the capital of Northern Avanti and Mahishmati on the banks of ‘Narmada’ was the capital of Southern Avanti.


According to Mahabharata, Mahishmati had a formidable fortress protected by Lord Agni himself who had never been conquered in the past. Sahadeva appeased the God by offering a Yajna before he went on to conquer the city.


To the north of Kalinga was the country of “Odras” which is today’s “Western Odisha”. This region was famous for the Mahendragiri mountain which according to Mahabharata and Ramayana was a resting place of Lord Parashurama. Its capital was Manipura near today’s Kendrapara.


It must be mentioned that the Manipura of Mahabharata is near the Mahendragiri mountain (on the Andhra-Odisha border in Gajapati district/Srikakulam district). Today’s “Manipur” in the North East got its name after 16th century. (It was earlier known as Kangleipak)


Today’s Manipur in NE India was actually renamed by Vaishnava migrants from this place. To the north of Brahman river was the country of “Utkalas”. To its North in the Padma basin was the country of “Vanga”, which is today’s Padma Delta of southern Bangladesh.

List of PSUs

Central public sector enterprises (CPSEs) are those companies in which the direct holding of the Central Government or other CPSEs is 51% or more.

As on 31.3.2015 there were 298 CPSEs wherein, 63 enterprises are yet to commence commercial operation. The remaining 235 are operating enterprises (covering 181 scheduled CPSEs & 54 CPSEs has been considered provisional).

There are 181 scheduled CPSEs, i.e. 64 Schedule ‘A’, 68 Schedule ‘B’, 45 Schedule ‘C’ and 4 Schedule ‘D’ CPSEs.[1]

PSUInc.MinistryHeadquartersSectorGroupRatna statusWebsite
Agriculture Insurance Company of India2002Ministry of FinanceNew
Air India Express Limited1971Ministry of Civil AviationKochiKeralaServicesTransport
Air India Engineering Services2006Ministry of Civil AviationMumbaiMaharashtraEnterprises Under
Air India Limited2007Ministry of Civil AviationNew DelhiServicesTransport
Airline Allied Services Limited1996Ministry of Civil AviationNew DelhiServicesTransport Services
Airports Authority of India1995Ministry of Civil AviationNew DelhiServicesTransport ServicesMiniratna Category –
Akaltara Power2006Ministry of
Andrew Yule & Co Ltd1919Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesKolkataWest BengalManufacturingMedium & light
Antrix Corporation1992Department of SpaceBangaloreKarnatakaManufacturingMedium & light
Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India1972Ministry of Social Justice and EmpowermentKanpurUttar PradeshManufacturingConsumer
Balmer Lawrie & Company1972Ministry of Petroleum and Natural GasKolkataWest BengalServices & ManufacturingMedium & light engineeringMiniratna Category –
Balmer & Lawrie Investments2001Ministry of Petroleum and Natural GasKolkataWest BengalServicesFinancial
BEL Optoelectronic Devices (BEL)1990Ministry of Defence D/o Defence ProductionPuneMaharashtraManufacturingMedium & light engineeringUncategorized
Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals1981Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers D/o PharmaceuticalsKolkataWest BengalManufacturingChemicals &
Bharat Coking Coal1972Ministry of CoalDhanbadJharkhandMiningCoal & ligniteMiniratna Category –
Bharat Dynamics1970Ministry of Defence D/o Defence ProductionHyderabadTelanganaManufacturingMedium & light engineeringMiniratna Category –
Bharat Earth Movers (BEML)1964Ministry of Defence D/o Defence ProductionBangaloreKarnatakaManufacturingTransportation equipmentMiniratna Category –
Bharat Electronics Limited1954Ministry of Defence D/o Defence ProductionBangaloreKarnatakaManufacturingMedium & light
Bharat Heavy Electricals (BHEL)1964Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesNew DelhiManufacturingHeavy
Bharat Immunologicals and Biologicals Corporation1989Ministry of Science & Technology D/o BiotechnologyBulandshahrUttar PradeshManufacturingChemicals &
Bharat Petroleum1952Ministry of Petroleum and Natural GasMumbaiMaharashtraManufacturingPetroleum (refinery & Marketing)Maharatna[2]
Government of India (54%)
Bharat Pumps & Compressors1970Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesAllahabadUttar PradeshManufacturingMedium & light
Bharat Refractories1974Ministry of SteelMiningOther minerals & metals
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited2000Ministry of Communications & Information Technology D/o TelecommunicationsNew DelhiServicesTelecommunication ServicesMiniratna Category –
Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam2003Department of Atomic EnergyChennaiTamil NaduEnterprises Under
Bhartiya Rail Bijlee Corporation2007Ministry of PowerNew DelhiEnterprises Under Construction
Bihar Drugs & Organic Chemicals Limited1994Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers D/o PharmaceuticalsBiharDormant company
Bokaro Kodarma Maithon Transmission Company2007Ministry of PowerNew DelhiEnterprises Under Construction
Brahmaputra Cracker and Polymer Limited2006Ministry of Chemicals and FertilizersLepetkataAssamEnterprises Under
Brahmaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation2002Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers D/o
Braithwaite & Company1976Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesKolkataWest BengalManufacturingHeavy
Braithwaite, Burn & Jessop Construction Company1984Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesKolkataWest BengalServicesContract & Construction
Bridge and Roof Company1972Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesKolkataWest BengalServicesContract & Construction ServicesMiniratna
British India Corporation1981Ministry of TextilesKanpurUttar
Broadcast Engineering Consultants India1995Ministry of Information & BroadcastingNew DelhiServicesIndustrial Development & Tech. Consultancy ServicesMiniratna Category –
Cement Corporation of India1965Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesNew DelhiManufacturingConsumer
Central Coalfields Limited1975Ministry of CoalJharkhandMiningCoal & LigniteMiniratna Category –
Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India Limited1976Ministry of TextilesNew DelhiServicesTrading &
Central Electronics Limited1974Ministry of Science & Technology D/o Scientific & Industrial ResearchUttar PradeshManufacturingMedium & light
Central Mine Planning and Design Institute1975Ministry of CoalJharkhandServicesIndustrial Development & Tech. Consultancy ServicesMiniratna Category
Central Railside Warehousing Company2007Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution D/o Food & Public DistributionNew DelhiServicesTrading &
Central Warehousing Corporation1957Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution D/o Food & Public DistributionNew DelhiServicesTrading & MarketingMiniratna Category – I
Certification Engineers International Limited1994Ministry of Petroleum and Natural GasNew DelhiServicesIndustrial Development & Tech. Consultancy ServicesMiniratna Category –
Chennai Petroleum Corporation1965Ministry of Petroleum and Natural GasChennaiTamil NaduManufacturingPetroleum (refinery & Marketing)Miniratna Category –
Government of India (74%)
Coal India1973Ministry of CoalKolkataWest BengalMiningCoal &
Government of India (79.65%)
Coastal Karnataka Power Limited2006Ministry of PowerEnterprises Under Construction
Coastal Maharashtra Mega Power Limited2006Ministry of PowerEnterprises Under Construction
Coastal Tamil Nadu Power Limited2007Ministry of PowerNew DelhiEnterprises Under Construction
Cochin Shipyard1972Ministry of ShippingKochiKeralaManufacturingTransportation EquipmentMiniratna Category –
Container Corporation of India Limited1988Ministry of RailwaysServicesTransport ServicesNavratna Category –
Cotton Corporation of India1970Ministry of TextilesMumbaiMaharashtraServicesTrading &
Damodar Valley Corporation1948Ministry of PowerKolkataWest
Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India2007Ministry of RailwaysNew DelhiEnterprises Under Construction
Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited1995Ministry of Urban DevelopmentDelhiServicesTransport Services
East North Interconnection Company2007Ministry of PowerNew DelhiEnterprises Under Construction
Eastern Coalfields Limited1975Ministry of CoalAsansolWest BengalMiningCoal & Lignite
Educational Consultants India Limited1981Ministry of Human Resource Development D/o Secondary Education & Higher EducationUttar PradeshServicesIndustrial Development & Tech. Consultancy ServicesMiniratna Category – I
Electronics Corporation of India1967Department of Atomic EnergyHyderabadTelanganaMedium & light engineering
Engineering Projects (India) Limited1970Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises D/o Heavy IndustriesServicesIndustrial Development & Tech. Consultancy ServicesMiniratna Category – II
Engineers India Limited1965Ministry of Petroleum and Natural GasServicesIndustrial Development & Tech. Consultancy
Export Credit Guarantee Corporationof India1957Ministry of Commerce & Industry D/o CommerceMumbaiMaharashtraServicesFinancial Services
FCI Aravali Gypsum & Minerals India Limited2003Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers D/o FertilizerJodhpurRajasthanMiningOther Minerals & MetalsMiniratna Category –
Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited1979Ministry of SteelChhattisgarhManufacturingSteelMiniratna Category – II
Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore1943Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers D/o
Fertilizer Corporation of India Limited1961Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers D/o FertilizerNoida,Uttar
Food Corporation of India1965Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution D/o Food & Public DistributionNew DelhiServicesTrading &
Fresh & Healthy Enterprises2006Ministry of RailwaysServicesTransport Services
GAIL (India) Limited1984Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas

शादी एक दर्द या हमदर्द

शादी के पहले चंद्रमुखी
शादी के बाद सूरजमुखी
शादी के पांच साल बाद ज्वालामुखी
शादी के पंद्रह साल बाद तू दुखी मै दुखी

उपरोकत्त चुटकुला बचपन से सुनता आया और शायद आप लोगो ने भी कभी ना कभी सुना ही होगा।अब जब मेरी खुद की शादी को 15 साल पूरे हो चुके है तो सोचा उपरोक्त चुटकी की चुटकी ली जाए।

हमारी एक अरेंज्ड मैरिज हुई है परन्तु मै अपनी पत्नी से शादी से पहले भी मिलता रहा। वही चंद्रमुखी की तरह शांत और जिज्ञासु। हमारे लिए मोबाइल फोन उस समय विलासिता की वस्तु हुआ करता था। बहरहाल मै अपने ऑफिस से अपनी सहकर्मियों से अपनी ससुराल फोन कराता था ताकि किसी को शक ना हो। और जब उनसे मिलने जाया करता था उस दिन अधीरता की पराकाष्ठा होती थी

शादी के बाद प्यार और बढ़ा। बच्चे हुए। गृहस्थ का बोझ और बढ़ा। तब समझ में आया कि मै शादी शुदा हो चुका हूं। अब हमारी धरमपत्नी सूरजमुखी वाली अवस्था में आ चुकी थी छोटी छोटी बातो पर झगड़ना और मनाना। जैसे दो धाराओं के मिलन पर एक नई धारा का सृजन होता है वैसे ही हर रोज एक नया सासमंजस्य हम दोनों के बीच बढ़ता गया

मुझे लगता है हमारी सच्चाई और और सोच में 3 साल का फर्क रहता है

फिर ज्वालामुखी वाली परिस्थिति अनायास का झगड़ा, कभी तकरार कभी प्यार ।

जिंदगी कपड़े की तरह थोड़ी फट जाती है पर रफू कर के चलना बेहतर है बजाय एक नई जिंदगी शुरू करने से। कभी जब पत्नी गुस्से में हो तो आप शांत हो जाए। या जब आप गुस्से मै हो तब पत्नी शांत हो जाए। पर रात को सोने से पहले सारे झगड़े आपस में रिकंसाइल हो जाने चाहिए

तब अहसास किया की शादी होना दो विपरीत धाराओं का मिलन है। जैसे ठंडे पानी में उबला हुआ पानी डालने पर तरंगों का अहसास होता है या फिर साफ पानी में जब कपड़ों को रचमकाने के लिए नील डालने पर जो तरंगे उत्पन्न होती है, जिंदगी ऐसी ही तो है समझौता अपनी सोच का, अपने सपनों का।

एक सुखद अहसास जब आप अपने सपनों को त्याग देते है अपने जीवनसाथी के लिए। और आपका जीवन साथी बलि दे देता है अपने सपनों की आपके लिए।

तब आप सोचते है अपने सपनों के बारे में जो सपने है, और आप आपके सामने हकीक़त को ठुकरा नहीं सकते। क्योंकि हम उन सपनों के लिए जिए को कभी सच नहीं हुए और जो सच्चाई सामने है उसे हमने सपनों से तुलना की

अब चलते है तू दुखी मै दुखी वाली दहलीज पर एक ऐसी परिस्थिति जो सबसे भयावह समझी जाती है असल में ये बिल्कुल इसके विपरित हॉट है। आपको पहली बार अहसास होता है की आप दोनों एक दूसरे के लिए बने है। क्योंकि आप ही है जो आखिर दम में एक दूसरे से थोड़ा आगे पीछे, पर साथ रहेंगे।

यही वह घड़ी है जब आपको अहसास होता है जिस जिंदगी को आप ढूंढ रहे थे वो तो आपके साथ थी। तब आपको दुनिया की सब वस्तुएं बेमानी लगती है। और जीवनसाथी सर्वोपरि

Biological warfare. Has it come?

So it appears US, Canada, UK, are already working on #coronavirus. Your links shared points out to major conspiracy in Biological weapon for mass destruction.
A patent cure dates back to 2015 by the same name.😲

Recovery of NPAs a big task prioritised by NDA!

✅Record recovery of 2.03 Lakh crores in 1.5 years
✅12 out of 18 PSU reports profit
✅Bad Loans reduced from 8.96 to 7.27 lakh crores
⭐Fugitive Economic Offenders Act
⭐India’s Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code
Two ACTs takes away of promotors crown of financial fugitives

Old Hindu Temples हिन्दुओं के प्राचीन मंदिर

List of ancient and magnificent temples situated in all four directions of united India. If you want to have a spiritual experience, then definitely read. The following list has been created with the help of various people. It is still in the stage of compilation, try to complete it as soon as possible, you can go to the temples of different areas by clicking on the menu above and go directly to that area.

अखंड भारत की चारों दिशाओं में स्थित प्राचीन व भव्य मंदिरों की लिस्ट। यदि आप आध्यात्मिक अनुभव लेना चाहते हैं तो जरूर पढ़ें। निम्न सूची अवं संग्रह विभिन्न लोगो के अनुदान से निर्मित की गई है. यह अब भी कंपाइलेशन की स्टेज में है, कोशिश है की जल्द से जल्द इसे पूरा किया जाये, आप विभिन्न क्षेत्रो के मंदिरो को ऊपर दिए गए मेनू पर क्लिक कर के सीधा उस क्षेत्र पर जा सकते है

In India

Southern India

Tamil Nadu

Shore Temple, Tamil Nadu

The Shore Temple was built in 700–728 AD is located near Chennai in Tamil Nadu n is so named because it overlooks the shore of the Bay of Bengal. It is now UNESCO world heritage site.

Shore Temple is built using the granite stones and it is one of the oldest stone temples in South India.
Shore Temple was named as ‘Seven Pagodas’ due to its pyramidal structure. The name ‘Seven Pagodas’ indicate to the existence of 7 temples in the past.

It is beautiful structure is an architectural marvel, which depicts the ancient finesse of art. In the time of Pallava dynasty, Mahabalipuram was popular trading port.
The construction of Shore Temple was started by Pallava ruler Narasimhavarman II.

Later, Cholas built the additional parts of the temple after invading the Mamallapuram from the Pallavas.

Credit: Harsha on Twitter

Ekambareswar Temple एकमबरेश्वर मंदिर, कांचीपुरम, तमिलनाडु

Ekambareswar Temple, Kanchipuram, Tamilnadu : Magnificent 9th Century Chola Dynasty Ekambareswarar Shiva/Vishnu Temple,Kanchipuram,TN/Panch Bootha Sthala-Earth/1 of the Tallest 194ft RajaGopuram/Temple’s 3500yr old Mango tree ‘s 4 branches yield 4 different types of Mangoes

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Credit to Sangitha Varier from Twitter

Airavatesvara temple, TN एरावटेश्वर मंदिर, दारासुरम, तमिलनाडु

Airavatesvara Temple is a Hindu temple of Dravidian architecture located in the town of Darasuram, near Kumbakonam, Thanjavur District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

The temple is now UNESCO world heritage site was built by king Rajaraja Chola II. He ruled the Chola Empire between 1146 and 1172 CE.The established capital for his predecessors was Gangapuri, named after the holy north Indian Ganges River and goddess.

The stone temple incorporates a chariot structure,and includes major Vedic and Puranic deities such as Indra, Agni,Varuna,Vayu,Brahma, Surya, Vishnu, Saptamtrikas, Durga, Saraswati, Sri Ganga, Yamuna, Subrahmanya, Ganesha,Kama, Rati and others.Shiva’s consort has a dedicated shrine called the Periya Nayaki Amman temple.

Chennakesava Temple, Belur, श्री चेन्नकेश्वर मंदिर, कर्नाटक

One of the greatest places of worship ever built is the Chennakesava Temple, Belur. Initially commisioned in the 12th century CE by the Hoysala ruler, Vishnuvardhana, the temple was built over three generations & took over 100 years to complete. This temple dedicated to Hindu god Vishnu is located in the village of Hullekere,is a Village in Turuvekere Taluk in Tumkur District of Karnataka State, India.

It was built in 1163 A.D. by a minister of Hoysala empire king Narasimha I. The monument is protected by the Karnataka state division of Archaeological Survey of India. Probably the greatest architectural triumph in the world, every nook and corner of the temple represents a story and leaves you in awe of its sheer chiselled brilliance. I can go on and on about the temple, but the fact is there can NEVER be another one like this. @Sanjay_Dixit

One can post a 1000 pics of the wonder but still not cover 5% of the marvel. This is one temple that has to be experienced. ChennaKesava means “Beautiful Vishnu” and it seems to have been created by Vishnu himself. credit: travel_with_sre| Charles Haynes |Sajit Ravindran

Shri Ramanatha Swami Temple Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu / श्रीरामनथा स्वामी मंदिर रामेश्वरम्, तमिलनाडु

Shri Meenakshi Temple, Madurai / श्री मीनाक्षी मंदिर, मदुरै

How Wondrous is Our Heritage!!The “Zero Echo”1000 Pillar Hall In The Amazing 6th Century CE Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple,TN dedicated to Goddess Parvati/Lord Shiva. The Temple with 33,000 Sculptures

Credit : Sangitha Varier

Shri Ranganatha Swamy Temple, Srirangam, Tamil Nadu / श्री रंगनाथा स्वामी मंदिर, श्रीरंगम, तमिलनाडु

No Words can describe the Stunning Ancient Architecture Marvel 6th Century SriRanganathaswamy Temple,Srirangam,TN -156 acres,81 shrines/21 towers/39 pavilions/9water tanks/1000 Pillared Mandap/240ft Main Gopuram. A must in Arch Courses

Shri Thillai Nataraj Temple, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu / श्री थिल्लई नटराज मंदिर, चिदंबरम, तमिलनाडु

Ekambreshwar Temple, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu / एकमबरेश्वर मंदिर, कांचीपुरम, तमिलनाडु

Brihadiswarar Temple, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu / बृहदीश्वरर मंदिर, थंजावुर, तमिलनाडु

Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva in Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Jayankondam, in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a Village located near to Jayankondam, Tamil Nadu, India. It became the capital of the Chola dynasty in c. 1025 during the reign of Rajendra Chola I, and served as the Chola capital for around 250 years.

The main. temple dedicated to Shiva is based on a square plan, but it reverentially displays other Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Durga, Surya, Harihara, Ardhanarishvara, and others.

Credit: Harsha Patel @Harsha2013 on twitter

Shri Arunachaleshwar Temple, Thiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu / श्री अरूणाचलेश्वर मंदिर, तिरूवन्नामलाई, तमिलनाडु

Aravateshwar Temple, Darasuram, Tamil Nadu / एरावटेश्वर मंदिर, दारासुरम, तमिलनाडु

Kailashnath Temple, Tamil Nadu / कैलाशनाथ मंदिर, तमिलनाडु

Shri Varadaraja Swami Temple, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu / श्री वरदराजा स्वामी मंदिर, कांचीपुरम, तमिलनाडु

Kamakshi Amman Temple, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu / कामाक्षी अम्मन मंदिर, कांचीपुरम, तमिलनाडु

Srivakuntanath Swamy, Shri Vaikuntham, Tamil Nadu / श्रीवैकुंटनाथ स्वामी, श्री वैकुंठम, तमिलनाडु

Sreemurgan Temple, Tamil Nadu / श्रीमुर्गन मंदिर, तमिलनाडु


Shriganga Saraswati Temple Basra, Telangana / श्रीगंगा सरस्वती मंदिर बसरा, तेलंगाना

Shri Sita Ramachandra Swamy Temple, Bhadrachalam, Telangana / श्री सीता रामचंद्र स्वामी मंदिर, भद्राचलम, तेलंगाना

Shri Jogulamb Temple, Telangana / श्री जोगुलंब मंदिर, तेलंगाना

Rampa Temple, Telangana / रामप्पा मंदिर, तेलंगाना

Srilakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, Yadagiri Gatta, Telangana / श्रीलक्ष्मी नरसिम्हा स्वामी मंदिर, यादगिरीगट्टा, तेलंगाना


Virupaksha Temple, Hampi, Karnataka / विरूपक्ष मंदिर, हम्पी, कर्नाटक

Shri Chamundeshwari Temple, Mysore, Karnataka / श्री चामुंडेश्वरी मंदिर, मैसूर, कर्नाटक

Hoysaleswara Temple, Halebidu, Karnataka / होयसेलेश्वरा मंदिर, हलेबिडु, कर्नाटक

Shri Murudeshwara Swamy Temple, Bhatkal, Karnataka / श्री मुरूदेश्वर स्वामी मंदिर, भटकल, कर्नाटक

Stunning Architectural Skills👌Scenic Murudeswar Shiva Temple/ Bhatkal, Karnataka/ 20 storied 237.5ft RajaGopura/No pillars/No cement/No iron bars or columns/Only Locking of stone🙏 A must in all 🇮🇳 Architecture Syllabus

Murdeshwar is a town in Bhatkal Taluk of Uttara Kannada district in the state of Karnataka, India. The town is located 13 km from the taluk headquarters of Bhatkal.

#RewriteHistory Speechless👌12th century Marvel Kopeshwar ShivJi Temple built by Shilahara King Gandaraditya,KidrapurKolhapur/Stunningly Beautiful Lathe turned pillars Wth Advanced technology🙏To D Gr8 Skilled Ancient🇮🇳Artisans🙏

Credit Sangitha Varrier on Twitter

Lakshminarasimha Temple, Harnhalli, Karnataka

The Lakshminarasimha temple at Haranhalli is a complete and good example of 13th century Hoysala architecture. Haranhalli is located about 35 km from Hassan city in Karnataka state, India.

The temple, whose main deity is the Hindu god Vishnu, was built in 1235 A.D. by the Hoysala Empire King Vira Someshwara. The temple is a protected monument under the Karnataka state division of the Archaeological Survey of India.

Credit Harsha Patel on Twitter

Shri Manjunath Temple, Karnataka / श्री मंजुनाथ मंदिर, कर्नाटक

Shri Krishna Temple, Karnataka / श्री कृष्ण मंदिर, कर्नाटक

Shri Mukambika Devi Temple, Kolur, Karnataka / श्री मूकम्बिका देवी मंदिर, कोल्लूर, कर्नाटक

Srithirunarayan Swamy Temple, Melkot, Karnataka / श्रीथिरूनारायण स्वामी मंदिर, मेलकोट, कर्नाटक

Kalleshwara Temple, Hadagalitaluka, Karnataka

The Kalleshwara temple (also spelt Kalleshvara or Kallesvara) is located in the town of Hire Hadagali of the Hoovina Hadagalitaluka in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. This temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.

The temple was constructed by Demarasa, prime minister (or mahamatya) to Western Chalukya Empire King Someshvara I  who reigned from 1042–1068 CE.The temple is protected as a monument of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.

According to an Old Kannada inscription (dated 1083) placed in the sabhamantapa (lit, “gathering hall”), the temple was constructed during the reign of the Western Chalukya Empire King Vikramaditya VI.

Credit: @HarshaPatel2013 on Twitter

Veera Narayana Temple, Karnataka

The Veera Narayana temple is located in Belavadi, a village in the Chikkamagaluru district of Karnataka state, India. It is a short distance from the famous temple towns of Belur and Halebidu.

The temple was built during the rule of the Hoysala Empire.Known to legend as Ekachakranagara, Belavadi is said to be the place mentioned in Mahabharatha where Pandava prince Bheema killed the demon Bakasura and protected the village and its people.

Credit Harsha on Twitter


Shri Padmanabhaswamy Temple Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala / श्रीपद्मनाभस्वामी मंदिर तिरूअनंतपुरम, केरल

Shri Ayyappa Temple, Kerala / श्री अयप्पा मंदिर, केरल

Shri Krishna Temple, Kerala / श्री कृष्ण मंदिर, केरल

Wadakmanathan Temple, Kerala / वडक्कमनाथन मंदिर, केरल

Shrivakom Mahadev Temple, Kerala / श्रीवैकोम महादेव मंदिर, केरल

Mannarshala Srinagarj Temple, Alappuzha, Kerala / मन्नारशाला श्रीनागराज मंदिर, अलप्पुझा, केरल

Andhra Pradesh

Shri Kanak Durga Devi Temple, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh / श्री कनक दुर्गा देवी मंदिर, विजयवाडा, आंध्रप्रदेश

Shri Narasimha Temple, Ahobilam, Andhra Pradesh / श्री नरसिम्हा मंदिर, अहोबिलम, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shri Chaturmukh Brahmaleshwar Temple, Cheberolu, Andhra Pradesh / श्री चतुर्मुख ब्रह्मलिंगेश्वर मंदिर, चेबरोलु, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shri Virbhadra Temple, Andhra Pradesh / श्री वीरभद्र मंदिर, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shri Veer Venkat Satyanarayana Swamy Temple, Annawaram, Andhra Pradesh / श्री वीर वेंकट सत्यनारायण स्वामी मंदिर, अन्नावरम्, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shri Varrah Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple, Simhachalam, Andhra Pradesh / श्री वरह लक्ष्मी नरसिम्हा स्वामी मंदिर, सिम्हाचलम, आंध्र प्रदेश

Srikmulangeshwara Temple, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh / श्रीमुखलिंगेश्वर मंदिर, श्रीकाकुलम, आंध्र प्रदेश

Vednarayan Swamy Temple, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh / वेदनारायण स्वामी मंदिर, चित्तूर, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shrimalikarjun Swami Temple, Srisailam, AP

Mahanandiswara Temple, Mahanandi, Andhra Pradesh / महानन्दीश्वर मंदिर, महानन्दी, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shrivardishti Vinayak Temple, Kanipakkam, Andhra Pradesh / श्रीवरसिद्धि विनायक मंदिर, कनिपक्कम, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shrikaramund Temple, Shrikaram, Andhra Pradesh / श्रीकरमंध मंदिर, श्रीकरमम, आंध्र प्रदेश

Shri Venkateswara Temple, Tirupati / श्रीवेंकटेश्वर मंदिर, तिरूपति

The Gateway to Heaven Kaliyuga Vaikuntam – Lord of the 7 Hills 300 CE Tirumala Tirupathi Lord Venkateswara Vishnu Temple who appeared here to save mankind from Sorrows of Kali Yuga

Credit : Sangitha Varier @VarierSangitha on Twitter

Chintala Venkataraman Temple, AP

IncredibleIndia Stunning Traditional Yali Carved 60 plus pillared Mandap-In 16th Century Vijayanagara Empire Sri Chintala Venkataramana Temple,Tadipatri,AP dedicated to Lord Vishnu

An ASI protected Architectural Marvel

Credit Sangitha on twitter

Eastern India


Sreejagannath Temple, Puri, Odisha / श्रीजगन्नाथ मंदिर, पुरी, ओडिशा

Sun Temple in Konark, Odisha / सूर्य मंदिर कोणार्क, ओडिशा

Shri Lingaraj Temple, Bhubaneshwar / श्री लिंगराज मंदिर, भुवनेश्वर

Shri Mukteshwar Temple, Bhubaneshwar / श्री मुक्तेश्वर मंदिर, भुवनेश्वर

SriConth Yogini Temple, Odisha / श्रीचौंसठ योगिनी मंदिर, ओडिशा

Parashurameshvara Temple, Odissha

Parashurameshvara Temple is considered to be the best-preserved specimen of an ancient Hindu temple. The Temple was constructed in the early 7th century but the astonishing maintenance of this massive temple is the biggest attraction of it. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva.

The stunning Nagara-style architecture oozes a charm of its own. The alluring idols of Shakta deities is another main attraction of this place. Parashuramashtami & Maha Shivratri are the major festivals celebrated in the temple.

Parashurameshvara represents Shiva as the lord of Parashurama, one of the avatars of Vishnu. The temple derives its name from the penance of Parashurama & the resultant grace of Shiva. Parashurashtami is the main festival celebrated during June–July of every year.

At the outer wall there is an amazing idol of four armed Lord Ganesha seated on a singhasan, with his trunk touching a bowl of Modak held in his lower left hand. An idol of Lord Karttikeya holding a spear in his left hand is also seen along with his mount peacock.

The temple contains the earliest representation of a six-armed Mahishamardini (Durga) image, shown inside a gavaksha frame holding a sword in the upper left hand while in the upper right hand, she is seen pressing the face of the demon buffalo.

Pediment outside of the temple, which depicts vampires and demons (vetala) as well as several animals. Decorated window on the temple with sculptures of dancers (top) and musicians (below).

Decorations outside the temple consisting of engravings of divine geese (hamsa) as well as flowers, at the lower part it can be apreciated the symbol of the Purna-Kalasha and on the left the image of a Lingam that represents Shiva.

The temple history dates back to the period between the 7th & 8th centuries. The temple was built by the Shailodbhavas, who had Lord Shiva as their family deity. The Shailodbhavas also worshiped the Shakta deities & hence depicted images of deities on the walls of the temple. This is the only Shiva temple in Bhubaneswar to contain depictions of Saptamatrikas, including Chamunda, Varahi, Indrani, Vaishnavi, Kaumari, Shivani and Brahmi. The temple is maintained and administered by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI).

Few more attractions of this temple: A big Shiva Lingam, which is carved With 1008 Miniature Of itself is at the temple premises Maa Laxmi sitting on a lotus flower and surrounded by two elephants is also depicted on the outer wall.

Credit : @Lisha_Indian on Twitter


Shri Baidyanath Temple, Jharkhand / श्री बैद्यनाथ मंदिर, झारखंड


Kamakhya Temple, Guwahati, Assam / कामाख्या मंदिर, गुवाहाटी, असम

West Bengal

Sridakineshwar Temple, Kolkata / श्रीदक्षिणेश्वर मंदिर, कोलकाता

Northern India


Shreemundeshwari Temple, Bihar / श्रीमुंडेश्वरी मंदिर, बिहार

Shri Vishnupada Temple, Gaya / श्रीविष्णुपद मंदिर, गया


Danteswari Temple, Chhattisgarh / दन्तेश्वरी मंदिर, छत्तीसगढ़


Sheetla Mata Temple, Gurgaon / शीतला माता मंदिर, गुड़गांव

Himachal Pradesh

Shri Baijnath Temple, Himachal / श्री बैजनाथ मंदिर, हिमाचल

Srilaksminarayan Temple, Chamba, Himachal Pradesh / श्रीलक्ष्मीनारायण मंदिर, चम्बा, हिमाचल प्रदेश

Shrinina Devi Temple, Himachal Pradesh / श्रीनैना देवी मंदिर, हिमाचल प्रदेश

Maa Asha Devi Temple, HP

Drona Shiv Bari Temple, Gagret, HP

Drona Shiv Bari Temple, Amb, HP is believed to be 5000 years Old. The forest around is very dense and trees here are quaint. The wood from this forest is only used for cremation.

It is believed that Rishi Drona used to use this place as base location for travel to Himalaya. His daughter Yajyati was stubborn to go along Rishi Drona. Drona planned to keep Yajyati busy and ask her to recite Beej Mantra till his return.

On his return he was surprised to see her daughter playing with Lord Shiva himself. Lord Shiva told a curious Rishi that his daughter has called him thats why he is there. @LostTemple7#omnamahshivay

Basheshwar Mahadev Temple, Kullu, HP

The biggest stone temple in Kullu, dedicated to Lord Shiva (Visweshvara Mahadev temple). Janashrutis’ related to Pandavas’ Agyaatwas, again rebuilt in the 8-9th century.

Credit : डॉ महेन्दर @Mahender_Chem

UT Of Jammu & Kashmir

Badrinarayan Temple, Uttarakhand22.Raghunath Temple, Jammu / बद्रीनारायण मंदिर, उत्तराखंड22.रघुनाथ मंदिर, जम्मू

Baba Amarnath, Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir / बाबा अमरनाथ, कश्मीर, जम्मू और कश्मीर

Shree Vishnodevi Temple, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir / श्रीवेष्णोदेवी मंदिर, जम्मू, जम्मू और कश्मीर


Ekalinganathji Temple, Udaipur, Rajasthan / एकलिंगनाथजी मंदिर, उदयपुर, राजस्थान

Shrinathji Temple, Nathdwara / श्रीनाथजी मंदिर, नाथद्वारा

Brahma Temple, Pushkar: / ब्रह्मा मंदिर, पुष्कर :

Tripureshwari Temple, Udaipur, / त्रिपुरेश्वरी मंदिर, उदयपुर, त्रिपुरा

Shri Salasar Hanuman Temple, Salasar, Rajasthan / श्री सलासर हनुमान मंदिर, सलासर, राजस्‍थान

Jagadpita Brahma Temple, Pushkar / जगद्पिता ब्रह्मा मंदिर, पुष्कर

Shri Baba Ramdev Temple, Runicha Dham Ramdevra, Rajasthan / श्री बाबा रामदेव मंदिर, रुणिचा धाम रामदेवरा, राजस्थान

Shri Mehndipur Balaji, Mehndipur Rajasthan / श्रीमेहंदीपुर बालाजी, मेहंदीपुर राजस्थान

Northern India


Mansa Devi Temple, Haridwar / मनसा देवी मंदिर, हरिद्वार

Shreebdrinarayan Temple, Badrinath / श्रीबद्रीनारायण मंदिर, बद्रीनाथ

Yamunotri Temple, Uttarakhand / यमुनोत्री मंदिर, उत्तराखंड

Kedarnath, Uttarakhand / केदारनाथ, उत्तराखंड

Gangotri Temple, Uttarakhand / गंगोत्री मंदिर, उत्तराखंड

Mankameshwar Temple, Ranikhet, Uttrakhand

A temple for soldiers going for war!! The Kumau regiment soldiers goes this temple before going for war. If you are lucky, you will have best view of Himalaya mountain range. You can view Himalayas mountains where Pandavas got their final destination.

Uttar Pradesh

Kashi Vishwanath Temple Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh / काशी विश्वनाथ मंदिर वाराणसी, उत्तरप्रदेश

बारह ज्योतिर्लिंगों में से एक है। यह मंदिर पिछले कई हजारों वर्षों से वाराणसी में स्थित है। काशी विश्‍वनाथ मंदिर का हिंदू धर्म में एक विशिष्‍ट स्‍थान है। ऐसा माना जाता है कि एक बार इस मंदिर के दर्शन करने और पवित्र गंगा में स्‍नान कर लेने से मोक्ष की प्राप्ति होती है। इस मंदिर में दर्शन करने के लिए आदि शंकराचार्य, सन्त एकनाथ रामकृष्ण परमहंस, स्‍वामी विवेकानंद, महर्षि दयानंद, गोस्‍वामी तुलसीदास सभी का आगमन हुआ हैं।

निर्माता महारानी अहिल्या बाई होल्कर
स्थापित 1780

It is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas. This temple has been located in Varanasi for many thousands of years. Kashi Vishwanath Temple has a special place in Hinduism. It is believed that one can get salvation by visiting this temple and taking a bath in the holy Ganges. Adi Shankara, Sant Eknath Ramakrishna Paramahansa, Swami Vivekananda, Maharishi Dayanand, Goswami Tulsidas have all come to visit this temple. Established in 1780 by Maharani AhilyaBai Holkar


Sri Krishna Janmabhoomi Temple, Mathura / श्रीकृष्ण जन्मभूमि मंदिर, मथुरा

Shri Ram Lala Temple, Ayodhya / श्री राम लला मंदिर, अयोध्या

Hanuman Dhara, Chitrakoot Uttar Pradesh / हनुमानधारा, चित्रकुट उत्तर प्रदेश

Madhya Pradesh

Kandhariya Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho / कंधारिया महादेव मंदिर, खजुराहो

Chaunsath Yogini Temple, Madhya Pradesh

Chaunsath means 64, one of the oldest heritage site , sitated on a hilltops in MadhyaPradesh.

It was constructed by Kalchuri Dynasty in the 10th Century madebonly local granite. There are about 150 stairs leading to the temple.

Yogini means female Yogic Practitioner. It is also symbol of Shakti.

credit Creative Media

There are 8 major form of Godesses, each Devi has 8 attendants, hence the name 64. The yemple is constructed in a circular form with inner diameter of 116 feet and outer diameter of 131 feet.

Narmada view is visible from the temple. The temple cloister consistes of 84 square pillars and has arrangement of 81 cells and 3 entrances.

This is one of the 4 Chausath Yogini temples in India.

Shrimahakaleshwar Temple Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh / श्रीमहाकालेश्वर मंदिर उज्जैन, मध्यप्रदेश

Kandhariya Mahadev Temple, Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh / कंधारिया महादेव मंदिर, खजुराहो, मध्यप्रदेश

Aakreshwar Mahadev Temple, Omkareshwar, Madhya Pradesh / ॐकारेश्वर महादेव मंदिर, ओमकारेश्वर, मध्यप्रदेश प्रस्तुति : अनिरुद्ध जोश ‘शता

Kailasha Temple, Ellora / श्रीकैलाशनाथ मंदिर, एलोरा

The temple is Hand chiseled & carved downwards intricately from top of mountain, 1000s of yrs ago. 400 Million Kgs of stone dug out of the mountain. And the World asks us to show them a Wonder ? Source @LostTemple7

Source : Isha Foundation

Western India


Shri Mahalsa Narayani Devi Temple, Ponda, Goa / श्रीमहालसा नारायणी देवी मंदिर, पोंडा, गोवा

Srisanta Durga Temple, Kawalem, Goa / श्रीशांता दुर्गा मंदिर, कावालेम, गोवा


Shri Dwarkadheesh, Gujarat / श्रीद्वारकाधीश, गुजरात

Srisomeshwar Swamy Temple, Gujarat / श्रीसोमेश्वर स्वामी मंदिर, गुजरात

Shri Ambaji Temple, Banaskantha, Gujarat / श्री अंबाजी मंदिर, बनासकांठा, गुजरात

Sreesuri Temple, Modhera, Gujarat / श्रीसूर्य मंदिर, मोधेरा, गुजरात

Shrimahakali Temple, Pavagadh, Gujarat / श्रीमहाकालीका मंदिर, पावागढ़, गुजरात


श्री ग्रश्नेश्वर मंदिर, महाराष्ट्र Grishneshwar Temple, Maharashtra

Grishneshwar ( Ghrneshwar or Dhushmeshwar) jyotirlingTemple,is one of the shrines dedicated to Lord Shiva that is referenced in the Shiva Purana, which considers it as the last or twelfth Jyotirlinga.

It is about 30 kilometres north-west of the city of Aurangabad,and at about 1.7km distance fr Ellora one of the UNESCO world heritage site.
 The temple structure was destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate in 13th and 14th-century. The temple went through several rounds of rebuilding.

The Grishneshwar temple was re-constructed by Maloji Raje Bhosale, the grandfather of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, in the 16th century.Later,the temple was again recnstrcted in the 18th century by Rani Ahilyabhai Holkar,a Maratha princess who ruled Indore fr 1765 CE to 1795 CE.

Credit : Harsha 🇮🇳

Shrididdhivinayak Temple, Mumbai / श्रीसिद्धिविनायक मंदिर, मुंबई

Shri Grishneshwar Temple, Maharashtra / श्री ग्रश्नेश्वर मंदिर, महाराष्ट्र

Trimbakeshwar Temple, Maharashtra / त्रयम्बकेश्वर मंदिर, महाराष्ट्र

Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple is an ancient Hindu temple in the town of Trimbak, in the Trimbakeshwar tehsil in the Nashik District of Maharashtra, India, 28 km from the city of Nashik.

It is dedicated to the god Shiva and is one of the twelve Jyotirlingas.The origin of the sacred Godavari river is near Trimbak. In the period of the Peshwas regime Nana Saheb Peshwa had instructed to construct the Trimbakeshwar temple and developed

Snd beautified the city of Trimbakeshwar. The Brahmagiri Hill is located in the temple town of Trimbak, just 1 km west of the Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple.

Credit : Harsha 🇮🇳

Kunkeshwar temple, Sindhudurg, Maharashtra

Kunkeshwar is a small village of Konkan in Maharashtra, India is
situated on the bank of Arabian Sea. It is well known for temple of the Lord Shiva.

Kunkeshwar is also known as Konkan Kashi. It is believed that the
temple of Kunkeshwar was built many years back by a Muslim sailor. He built the temple as promised. The Lingam was already there. As the Sailor was a non-Hindu, he thought that his religion will not accept him.

he committed suicide from the top of temple.
Along with religious imp kunkeshwar is well knwn for its beautiful beaches and serene nature…
It is located in the Sindhudurg district ..16 km away from Devgad 54 km from Malvan and 60 kilometers from Kankavli.

Credit: HarshaPatel2013 on Twitter

Shri Mahalaxmi Temple, Kolhapur, Maharashtra / श्री महालक्ष्मी मंदिर, कोल्हापुर, महाराष्ट्र

Bhadra Maruti Temple, Maharashtra / भद्र मारूति मंदिर, महाराष्ट्र

Tulja Bhavani Temple, Maharashtra / तुलजा भवानी मंदिर, महाराष्ट्र

Srisai Baba Temple, Shirdi, Maharashtra / श्रीसाई बाबा मंदिर, शिरडी, महाराष्ट्र

Saturn Temple, Shingnapur, Maharashtra / शनि मंदिर, शिंगणापुर, महाराष्ट्र

Shri Gajanan Maharaj, Shegaon, Maharashtra / श्री गजानन महाराज, शेगांव, महाराष्ट्र

Out of India

Yashoreshwari, District Opening, Bangladesh / यशोरेश्वरी, जिला, बांग्लादेश

Kailash Mansarovar, Tibet, China / कैलाश मानसरोवर, तिब्बत, चीन

Hinglaj Mata Temple, Balochistan, Pakistan / हिंगलाज माता मंदिर, बलूचिस्तान, पाकिस्तान

Hanuman Temple, Karachi, Pakistan / मं‍चमुख हनुमान मंदिर, कराची, पाकिस्तान

Pashupatinath Temple, Kathmandu / पशुपतिनाथ मंदिर, काठमांडू

Ganesha Temple, Asakusa, Japan

The history of Japan and India are more intertwined than one might think. A lot of gods and goddesses are common. Here is the Ganesha Temple in Asakusa. Ganesha is worshipped in Japan as Kangiten god of Conjugal Harmony, Child-Giving and Long Life. #TeamLostTemples@LostTemple7

credit: Manish Prabhune In Japan Kangiten is usually shown as a pair of two-armed, elephant-headed deities in embrace. Images of Kangiten are rare and many are kept as secret images in temples and shrines. cc: @Sanjay_Dixit@ashwinsanghi@ShefVaidya

Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Angkor Wat is a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in erstwhile Yaśodharapura now called Angkor The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture.

Ta Prohm, Siem Reap, Cambodia

Prohm “Ancestor Brahma” a Rajavihara built in the Bayon style in late 12th and early 13th centuries

Batu Cave Temple, Malaysia

The temple is actually situated in a cave which is reached after walking up 350~ stairs. You are welcomed on front by a huge God’s idol. After you have covered mammoth 350 stairs and monkey’s snatching your baggage (polybags attracts them not camera pouch, for they take it as a food item), you reach first level of cave almost 50 meters in heights.

A temple is situated there. Priest of this temple ceremons good for you an offers prayer. you have to put off your shoes at this level. And you cross 50 more stairs to reach second level of cave. You will find another temple (probably Tamil God, I am not sure).

You might want to take some rest before coming back. The entire tour takes about 40 Minutes to complete.

Our Vedic Scientists and Universities forgotten !

  • Father of Astronomy: Aryabhatta ; work – Aryabhattiyam
  • Father of Astrology: Varahamihira , works; Panchasiddhantika, Bruhat Hora Shastra
  • Fathers of Surgery : Charaka and Sushruta , works : Samhitas
  • Father of Anatomy: Patanjali , work: Yogasutra
  • Father of Yoga : Patanjali , work : Yogasutra
  • Father of Economics : Chanakya , work: Arthashshtra
  • Father of Atomic theory : Rishi Kanada , Work : Kanada sutras
  • Father of Architecture : Vishwakarmaa
  • Father of Aero Dynamics: Mayasura , work : Vastu Darpana
  • Father of Medicine: Dhanvanthri , first propounded Ayurveda
  • Father of Grammar: Panini , work: Vyakarana Deepika
  • Father of Natyashastra : Bharatamuni , work : Natyashastra
  • Father of Kavya (literature) : Krishna Dwaipayana (VedaVyasa) works ; Mahabharata , Ashtaadasha Puranas
  • Father of Playwriting : Kalidasa , works : Meghadhootam , Raghuvamsham , Kumara Sambhava etc etc
  • Father of Ganita: Bhaskara II , works : Lilavati
  • Father of Warfare and Weaponry: Parashurama, works: Kalaripayatu, Sulba Sutras
  • Father of story writing: Vishnu Sharma, works: Panchatantra
  • Father of Politics: Chanakya, works: Arthashashtra, Nitishashtra
  • Father of Sexual Anatomy: Vatsyana, work: Kamasutra
  • Father of Philosophy: Sri Krishna, work: Sribhagavadgeete
  • Father of Advaitha: Shankara, works: commentaries (Bhashyas), panchadasi, vivekachudamani,
  • Father of Alchemy: Nagarjuna, work: Pragnaparamita Sutras
  • Father of Aerospace technology: Maharishi Bharadwaj; work- Vimaan Shashtra

Compiled by Shudra_sanatani on twitter

Universities in ancient India other than Nalanda & Takshashila : Vikramashila, Vallabhi, Odantapuri, Pushpagiri & Somapura. Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar from 427 BCE to 1197 CE. It was established in the 5th century CE in Bihar. Lost due to invasions